One reason for your confusion is probably that the term "factor" is used for two different, but related concepts.
The first concept is quite simple: If you write down a specific product, each of the things you multiply is a factor of the product. For this meaning of "factor" the answer to your question is easy: $3\pi$ clearly is a product, and the factors of that product are $3$ and $\pi$. Note that according to this definitions, $3$ is not a factor of $6\pi$; the factors of that product are $6$ and $\pi$; on the other hand it is a factor of $2\cdot 3\cdot\pi$. In other words, $3$ is not a factor of the real number $3\pi$, but of the expression $3\pi$, that is, of the expression "three times pi".
The second meaning of "factor" is as synonym to "divisor" (but then, "divisor" also has two separate meanings; only one of them is synonymous with this meaning of "factor"). This second meaning is related to the fact that if you write down all products of integers whose value is a given integer $n$, then you'll find that some integers will occur as factor (1st meaning) in the product, while other integers will not. For example, take $n=12$. Then you can write $n$ as product of integers in several ways:
$$12 = 1\cdot 12 = 2\cdot 6 = 3\cdot 4$$
As you can see, only the numbers $1$, $2$, $3$, $4$, $6$ and $12$ occur as factors (1st meaning) in any of those products. Note that this is also called divisor, because those are exactly those numbers by which you can divide $12$ and get an integer result.
Now we call an integer $k$ a factor (2nd meaning) of $n$ if you can write a product with value $n$ where $k$ occurs as factor (1st meaning), or equivalently, if you can divide $n$ by $k$ and obtain an integer result.
Note that unlike the first meaning of factor, this second meaning refers to the number, not to the expression. For example, $4$ is a factor (2nd meaning) of $2\cdot 6$, because $2\cdot 6=12=3\cdot 4$. However $4$ is not a factor (1st meaning) of $2\cdot 6$ because there's no $4$ in the expression $2\cdot 6$.
Note however, that the equivalence stated above is true only in the integers. If you try to extend that to the real numbers, you get vastly different results: For any real number $a$ and every non-zero real number $b$, you can find a real number $c$ such that $a=bc$. So the first definition of factor (2nd meaning) applied to the real numbers will give you that every non-zero number is a factor of every number. On the other hand, if you generalize the second definition of factor (2nd meaning) to the real numbers, you indeed get that of $3\pi$ only $\pi$ is a factor (because $3\pi/\pi = 3\in\mathbb Z$, but $3\pi/3 = \pi\notin\mathbb Z$).
However neither option is really satisfying, therefore one generally doesn't use the notion of factor (2nd meaning) for real numbers at all. Note that if you do need the second relation, you'd normally say "$3\pi$ is an integer multiple of $\pi$; the term factor is not commonly used here.