# which of the following statements is not true for any such function?

If $y=p(x)$ is a third degree polynomial function with real coefficients, then which of the following statements is not true for any such function?

1. The range of $p$ is the set of all real numbers
2. The graph of $p$ touches the x-axis in at least three different places.
3. The graph of $p$ does not have any vertical or horizontal asymptotes.
4. The graph of $p$ touches the x-axis in less than four different places

I know 2 is not true, but do not understand why 3 is correct, particularly why the graph of $p$ does not have any vertical asymptotes. Can anyone explain to me why choice 3 is correct.

• Consider what happens as x tends to plus or minus infinity – mrnovice Feb 26 '17 at 5:25

let $p(x) = ax^{3} + bx^{2} + cx + d$
as $x$ tends to $\infty$, $p(x)$ tends to $\infty$ for $a >0$ and $-\infty$ for $a<0$
as $x$ tends to $-\infty$, $p(x)$ tends to $-\infty$ for $a >0$ and $\infty$ for $a<0$
Noting that $p(x)$ is continuous $\forall x$, there can't be any vertical or horizontal asymptotes. Note this fact is true for all polynomials of degree $2n+1$, $n \geq 1$
Vertical asymptote means that $\lim_{x\to c}p(x)=\pm\infty$ for some finite $c$. This would mean that either $p$ is not defined at $c$, or $p$ is not continuous, both of which are untrue for polynomials in general.
An horizontal asymptote means that $\lim_{x\to \pm\infty}=c$ for some finite $c$. Again, it's easy to see that this is not true for polynomials in general (well, except for those of degree $0$ I guess).