I need help with this question: There are infinitely many prime numbers $p$ for which $p + 2$ and $p + 4$ are also primes.
Where should I start? what proof techniques will be useful?
Any input will be very useful to me.
No, there are not infinitely many such primes among the integers, $\mathbb Z$. In fact, there are only precisely two of them: $p = -7$ or 3.
With the former, we have $p + 2 = -5$ and $p + 4 = -3$. With the latter, we have $p + 2 = 5$ and $p + 4 = 7$. So we have either the three primes $-7, -5, -3$ or the three primes 3, 5, 7. This suggests that in such a triple, one of the numbers must be a multiple of 3.
Since you can't use congruences, the solution is somewhat more laborious, but not by much. Suppose $p = 3k + 1$. Then $p + 2 = 3k + 3 = 3(k + 1)$, and that's composite unless $k = -2$ or 0. So suppose instead that $p = 3k + 2$. Then maybe $p + 2$ is prime, but then $p + 4 = 3k + 6 = 3(k + 2)$. The case $p = 3k$ (with implied plus zero) should now be obvious.