Please forgive me if this question has been answered before, but I haven't found anything that seems to cover my problem (I am not a mathematician).
I have several mathematical problems that are like these ones (can't post screenshots unfortunately):
Problem 8 to 12 are all similar, problem 7 is more general, but yet I don't understand how it's done and don't find anything on the internet and I am running out of time (exam in T minus 26,5 hours).
The alleged solutions for problems 7-12 are:
Now my problem is, I don't know how they come up with these numbers and can't figure it out from the script.
Please help me out here! Thanks a lot!