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I would like to know what is the difference between deduction and induction. Mathematical induction I know well, but now I would like to look at these from a philosophical point of view.

All help is appreciated.

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    $\begingroup$ I think that induction is based on making conclusion based on previous examples, such as "3,5,7 are primes, so every odd integer $>1$ is a prime". Deduction is based on logical reasoning rather than examples, such as "If we know that A imples B and A is true, then also B is true". But I'm no philospher, let's see if someone has a better answer... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deductive_reasoning $\endgroup$ – Peter Franek Nov 23 '16 at 9:54
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Mathematical induction is a form of deduction and is, in my opinion, poorly named. As far as I know, 'philosophical' induction is reasoning based on shear probability, i.e. 'There is so-and-so evidence to believe that...' For instance, most court cases are decided based on (overall) inductive reasoning.

The reason mathematical induction is a form of deduction is that the logic is clearly enunciated. See here for more.

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    $\begingroup$ Sometimes "induction" is used for any kind of reasoning that is not deductive. However, usually it is used in a much more restricted sense and may be understood to only apply to cases like "all A-things observed so far have had property B, so therefore all A-things have property B". Everything in between is then called "abduction", and I think that is the most reasonable term to use for what goes on in court cases. $\endgroup$ – Casper Nov 23 '16 at 22:02

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