Question: Is there any (absolute) geometry which is not "infinitesimally Euclidean"?
Context: All of the geometries listed on the Wikipedia page "Foundations of Geometry" (describing axiomatic formulations of geometry) seem to correspond to special cases of absolute geometry, and it seems like any absolute geometry is either hyperbolic, elliptic, or Euclidean (parabolic?) according to the version of the parallel postulate used, perhaps equivalently according to the type of curvature of the underlying geometric space. These all seem to have realizations or models as Riemannian manifolds of some sort.
Any geometry of (smooth) manifolds seems to be infinitesimally Euclidean, even for those without a Riemannian metric, since each neighborhood is (diffeomorphic) homeomorphic to Euclidean space.
Hyperbolic geometry seems to be the study of Riemannian manifolds with negative curvature, elliptic geometry the study of Riemannian manifolds with positive curvature, and Euclidean geometry the special case where there is no curvature. But obviously every neighborhood of a Riemannian manifold is diffeomorphic Euclidean space, thus even the Riemannian geometry of spaces like the torus, which is neither strictly elliptic nor hyperbolic, is infinitesimally Euclidean.
Thus it seems like to me that all of the elementary geometric axioms determine every aspect of the geometric space (e.g. that it must be a Riemannian manifold) except the curvature -- thus changes in the parallel postulate seem to correspond to different values of the curvature of the space.
Am I understanding this correctly? I had thought previously that the term geometry could be applied to spaces so abstract that they could not be embedded in any Euclidean space, and in particular were not infinitesimally Euclidean, but now I am not so sure. Any clarification would be appreciated. The question stems in part from my reading of Agricola and Friedrich's "Elementary Geometry" (also of the original German version), so perhaps if you have read some of that book as well you might understand better the source of my misunderstanding.