It seems like there is no polynomial with finite variables known, which could generate all prime numbers, by integer assignments. Is there a proof that such polynomial can not exist and does anyone have one in his/her stack?
In fact there does not even exist a non-constant polynomial $f$ (I assume you want integer coefficients) which only takes prime values with integer inputs. It suffices to prove this for polynomials in one variable. By the hypothesis that $f$ is non-constant, it takes arbitrarily large values, so without loss of generality $|f(0)| > 1$; in particular, $f(0)$ is divisible by some prime $p$. Then $f(kp)$ is always divisible by $p$, hence cannot be prime for sufficiently large $k$.
However, remarkably there do exist polynomials in more than one variable all of whose positive values are prime.
An all prime-generating polynomial with rational coefficients can be built. The point the degree will be infinity, because each time we add a prime we increase the degree. In the picture there are some examples for x>1