In mathematics, I sometimes encounter Gothic letters, I mean the letters $\mathfrak A, \mathfrak B, \mathfrak C, \mathfrak D, \dots, \mathfrak a, \mathfrak b, \mathfrak c, \mathfrak d, \dots$. To get them in $\LaTeX$ one would use $\mathfrak{A}$ etc.

For example, in the book Model theory by Chang and Keisler, structures are denoted $\mathfrak A = (A, \dots)$, $\mathfrak B = (B, \dots)$ and so on.

I would like to know how to write this by hand.

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    $\begingroup$ Possibly related: math.stackexchange.com/questions/236303 $\endgroup$
    – Watson
    Aug 21, 2016 at 20:19
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    $\begingroup$ @fleablood: the OP knows how to typeset the symbols using LaTeX, but doesn't know how to write them with a pen. The question is definitely on topic. $\endgroup$
    – Rob Arthan
    Aug 21, 2016 at 21:26
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    $\begingroup$ @fleablood: so in your view, mathematicians spring into this world fully equipped with all they need to know to use the symbols of mathematics. I don't share your opinion. $\endgroup$
    – Rob Arthan
    Aug 21, 2016 at 23:45
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    $\begingroup$ If this is off-topic, then so is math.stackexchange.com/q/1335475/321264. Isn't it? $\endgroup$ Aug 22, 2016 at 7:49
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    $\begingroup$ @fleablood: did I learn how to write symbols in any maths class? Yes, I did, by watching the teacher writing. $\endgroup$
    – Rob Arthan
    Aug 22, 2016 at 21:20

2 Answers 2


The corresponding handwritten script is Sütterlinschrift (Sütterlin script). This chart (which I’ve now reproduced here) clearly shows you the letter forms.

enter image description here

Added 20 October 2022: Uppercase Sütterlin letters that I have seen used to write mathematics at the blackboard, in some cases by Jerry Keisler, include at least $A,B,G,M,N$, and $U$.

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    $\begingroup$ With all due respect, this is barely intelligible! The "C" looks like a calligraphic "L", the "E" looks like an "f", the "X" looks like a calligraphic "H", etc. $\endgroup$ Sep 14, 2018 at 20:37
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    $\begingroup$ @DetachedLaconian: That is largely because you’re so familiar with a very different script based on a very different kind of book hand. (And the upper-case X looks very much like a standard lower-case x in much British handwriting.) $\endgroup$ Aug 25, 2020 at 18:29

I would probably switch to caligraphic variant for uppercase letters. For lowercase, I personally write it as filled blackboard bold (mostly for $\mathfrak{c}$ as continuum), i.e. you apply the way you write $ℝ, ℂ$ to lowercase letters and fill the space between the doubled stroke. Alternatively, you can also turn the oval-based shape into a hexagonal one.


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