Some fellow students were talking in a room a while back and apparently they're calculus professor told them a random integral they wrote up was "unsolvable" at the calculus semester 2 level.
The integral was $x \tan(x)$.
To try and see if I could solve it for them (out of curiosity) I was able to do the following by the method of integration of parts:
$\int x \tan(x) dx = x \int \tan(x) dx - \int \int \tan(x) dxdx$
Then by plugging in the integral of tangent:
$-x\ln|\cos(x)| + \int \ln|\cos(x)|dx$
The absolute value of cos can be rewritten as the absolute value of sin which can be rewritten via modulo:
$-x\ln|\cos(x)| + \int \ln|\sin(x+\frac \pi2)|dx = -x\ln|\cos(x)| + \int \ln\sin((x - \frac \pi2) \mod \pi) dx$
I can completely substitute away the modulo operation as I know how to adjust for such a substitution in the general case. (I presumed that this was the issue the professor referred to as most students do not learn of such functions). That leaves me with:
$-x\ln|\cos(x)| + \int \ln\sin(u)du$
This gets me to the final issue I cannot seem to solve. What is the integral of ln(sin(x))? I hear it has no closed form, yet when me and the other students looked it up, it said something about "poly-logarithms"? Is that some kind of made up function used to define an integral with no closed form? What does it mean?