I am trying to find the shortest distance between two concentric circles. I already know the angle between the two points and radii of the circles, but I am not sure how to calculate the distance between the two.
Imagine the example below, where $R_1 = 2$ and $R_2 = 3$ and the points are separated by 45 degrees. I would like to calculate the distance between these two points. Any help is much appreciated. Thanks!
Let me be more clear. I do not need the linear distance, I can do that no problem. I need the distance to be of the arc that connects these two points. The arc should "rise" at a constant rate between $R_1$ and $R_2$. This connection should also not intersect with the innermost circle.
Basically I am trying to simplify my problem. I currently have the great circle distance of two points on a globe, but this assumes that the two points are at the same radius. This is not always true when you are trying find the distance between a ground station and a satellite or something like that. I know the latitude, longitude, and altitude of both objects, so I can find this their angular separation, but don't know how to calculate the distance of the arcs that connect them.
Assume: $R_1 < R_2$