Let us say that there is a $n \times n$ matrix with entries defined/given as some natural number. (duplicates are fine.)

What would be the number of possible matrices that result from swapping/switching the entries in the original matrix that respects the entries in each row and column (order of rows and columns does not matter.)? (By respecting entries in each row and column, I mean that if there were some defined numbers in each row, the matrix must contain these numbers in some row.)


You would be selecting a permutation of columns and a permutation of the rows. The largest possible number is $(n!)^2$, if all entries are distinct: choose a permutation of the rows, $n!$; the resulting matrix satisfies the conditions. Then choose a permutation of the columns, $n!$ possibilities, and the matrix still satisfies the conditions.

If there are repeated entries, then it depends on exactly how you have repeats.

For example, if $n=2$, you get $4$ different matrices: $$\left(\begin{array}{cc} a&b\\c&d\end{array}\right),\quad\left(\begin{array}{cc}b&a\\d&c\end{array}\right),\quad \left(\begin{array}{cc}c&d\\a&b\end{array}\right),\quad\left(\begin{array}{cc}d&c\\b&a\end{array}\right).$$

If $n=3$, you have $36$ possibilities ( which I will not write in extenso); here is a way of verifying this by counting in a different way: if the original matrix is $$\left(\begin{array}{ccc} a&b&c\\ d&e&f\\ g&h&k \end{array}\right)$$ then you have $9$ possible positions for $a$; once $a$ is selected, you get two possibilities for placing $b$ in the same row, and two for placing $d$ in the same row. That determines uniquely the positions of $c$ and $g$; Once $c$ and $d$ are determined, that uniquely determines the position of $f$ (must be in the same row as $d$, same column as $c$), hence of $e$, and likewise the positions of $g$, $h$, and $k$ are now fixed. So in total you get $9\times2\times2=36 = 6\times 6 = 3!\times 3! = (3!)^2$ ways of doing it.


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