I am working through Elements of Information Theory by Cover and Thomas and have come across the following solution to one of their problems that I don't understand.

Consider a binary, symmetric channel with $Y_i = X_i + Z_i$, where $+$ is mod2 addition and $X_i, Y_i \in \{0,1\}$. Suppose that $\{Z_i\}$ has constant marginal probabilities $Pr\{Z_i=1\}=p=1-Pr\{Z_i=0\}$, but that $Z_1, Z_2, ..., Z_n$ are not necessarily independent. Assume that $Z^n$ is independent of the input $X^n$. Let $C=1-H(p,1-p)$. Show that $\max_{p(x_1, ..., x_n)}I(X_1,...,X_n;Y_1,...,Y_n) \ge nC$.

The solution begins by stating:


where $X_i$ are chosen i.i.d. from Bernoulli($\frac{1}{2}$). I don't understand how the rightmost equality is derived. It's not an identity and is not explained. I'm assuming that it's something simple I'm overlooking, could someone offer a hint?

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Let $X,Y,Z$ be $n$-dimensional vectors. You are given $Y=X+Z$. So $H(X|Y) = H(Y-Z|Y) = H(-Z|Y) = H(Z|Y)$. Overall, for any vectors $A,B$ we have $H(A+B|A)=H(B|A)$. $\endgroup$ – Michael Mar 8 '16 at 1:55
  • $\begingroup$ Oi, not enough fiddling! Thank you! $\endgroup$ – jjoe Mar 8 '16 at 2:44

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