# Another proof of Liouville's theorem.

Let $f(z)=\sum_{n} a_n z^n$ has radius of convergence $R>0$ and $0<r<R$. Show:

$$\frac{1}{2\pi} \int_0^{2\pi} |f(re^{it})|^2 dt= \sum_{n}|a_n|^2r^{2n}$$

Use this equality to prove Liouvelle's Theorem.

Can anyone give me a hint to how to proceed with this?

• Do you want a hint for how to prove the above equality, or for deducing Liouville's Theorem out of it? – sranthrop Mar 6 '16 at 16:50
• I want a hint for proving the equality – mea43 Mar 6 '16 at 16:53
• The formula is valid for any radius of convergence, but In the Liouvelle's Theorem the radius of convergence of the series is infinite. – Martín-Blas Pérez Pinilla Mar 6 '16 at 18:28

Note that by multiplying out and squaring the series for $f$, and using the relation $|w|^2=w\bar{w}$ we see that $$\frac{1}{2\pi} \int_0^{2\pi} |f(re^{it})|^2 dt = \frac{1}{2\pi} \int_0^{2\pi} \big(\sum_{j=0}^{\infty} c_jr^je^{ijt} \big)\big(\sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \bar{c_k} r^k e^{-ikt} \big) dt$$$$=\frac{1}{2\pi} \sum_{j,k=0}^{\infty}c_j\bar{c_k} r^{j+k} \int_0^{2\pi} e^{i(j-k)t} dt$$and in this last expression note that the integrand is zero unless $j=k$. I was purposefully informal with my infinite sums (there should be some limits in there).

For the second part of your question, suppose $f$ is a bounded entire function, say $|f| \leq M$.

Then the left hand side of the above equation is bounded above by $M^2$ for all $r>0$.

Now, for contradiction, assume that some $c_n \neq 0$. Then the right hand side is greater than or equal to $|c_n|^2r^{2n}$ which approaches to $\infty$ as $r \to \infty$.

• How can that be a contradiction when $0<r<R$? – mea43 Mar 6 '16 at 17:32
• Liouville's theorem : A bounded entire function is constant. So in part 2, we assune $R=\infty.$ – DanielWainfleet Mar 6 '16 at 19:12

We have $f(z)=\sum_n c_nz^n$.

Substituting $z=re^{it}$ and evaluating,

$\left|f(re^{it})\right|^2=\sum_n\left|c_n\right|^2r^{2n}+\sum_n\sum_mg(n,m,r)\times e^{i(n-m)t}$

Integrating both sides from $t=0$ to $t=2\pi$ should do it.

• what is the function g here? – mea43 Mar 6 '16 at 17:11
• Simply all possible combinations of $c_n\times \bar{c_m}\times r^{m+n}$ where $n\neq m$ – Mann Mar 6 '16 at 17:13