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I am trying to understand different finiteness conditions, in particular I am looking at the following exercise from Algebraic Geometry and Arithmetic Curves by Qing Liu:

Let $f:X\rightarrow Y$ be a morphism of schemes. We say that $f$ has finite fibers if $f^{-1}(y)=X_y$ is a finite set for every $y\in Y$. We say that $f$ is quasi-finite if moreover $\mathcal{O}_{X_y,x}$ is finite over $k(y)$ for every $x\in X_y$. Show that a morphism of finite type with finite fibers is quasi-finite. Give an example of a morphism with finite fibers that is not quasi-finite.

I think one is supposed to use that finite type morphisms are closed under base change. Also, any intuition about these things are very welcome!

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I recall the following definitions from Vakil's FOAG:

A morphism $f:X\to Y$ is locally of finite type if for every affine open subset $\operatorname{Spec}B=V$ of $Y$, and every affine open subset $\operatorname{Spec}A=U$ of $f^{-1}(V)$, the induced morphism $f^{*}_{|U}:B\to A$ expresses $A$ as a finitely generated $B$-algebra.

A morphism $f$ is of finite type if it is locally of finite type and quasicompact.

Without change the notations, let $f:X\to Y$ be a morphism of finite type; considering the diagram: \begin{equation} \require{AMScd} \begin{CD} U @>f_{|U}>> V\\ @VVV & @VVV\\ X @>>f> Y\\ \end{CD}; \end{equation} one has (obviously) the morphism of rings $f^{*}_{|U}:B=\mathcal{O}_Y(V)\to A=\mathcal{O}_X(U)$, and $A$ is a finitely generated $B$-algebra (via $f^{*}_U$).

By Qing Liu Algebraic Geometry and Arithemtic Curves:

Let $f:X\rightarrow Y$ be a morphism of schemes. $f$ has finite fibers if $f^{-1}(y)=X_y$ is a finite set for every $y\in Y$. $f$ is quasi-finite if moreover $\mathcal{O}_{X_y,x}$ is finite over $k(y)$ for every $x\in X_y$.

Let $y\in V$ and let $f$ be also a morphism of finite fibres by construction, $f^{-1}(y)=X_y=X\times_Y\operatorname{Spec}\kappa(y)$ and by hypothesis $X_y=\{x_1,\dots,x_n\}$. Considering the following diagram of schemes: \begin{equation} \begin{CD} X_y @>\overline{f}>> \operatorname{Spec}\kappa(y)\\ @VVV & @VVV\\ f^{-1}(V)@>>> V\\ @VVV & @VVV\\ X @>>f> Y \end{CD}; \end{equation} one has the $\operatorname{Spec}\kappa(y)$-scheme $X_y$, with structural morphism $\overline{f}=f\times i$, where $i$ is the inclusion of $\operatorname{Spec}\kappa(y)$ in $Y$.

For any $x\in X_y\subseteq U$, let $\mathfrak{p}_x$ be the corresponding prime ideal of $A$; one has that $\mathcal{O}_{X,x}$ is a finitely generated $\mathcal{O}_{Y,y}$-algebra (via $f^{*}_x$, the localization of $f^{*}_{|U}$ on $x$).

From all this, because $\mathcal{O}_{X_y,x}=\mathcal{O}_{X,x}\otimes_{\mathcal{O}_{Y,y}}\kappa(y)$: $\mathcal{O}_{X_y,y}$ is finite over $\kappa(y)$; because this statement holds for any $x\in X_y$, by definition, $f$ is a quasi-finite morphism of schemes!

Remark: more in general, a morphim of schemes locally of finite type with finite fibres is quasi-finite!

Example: considering the ring morphism $i:\mathbb{Q}\hookrightarrow\overline{\mathbb{Q}}$, the inclusion of $\mathbb{Q}$ in its algebraic closure; then $i^{\sharp}:\operatorname{Spec}\overline{\mathbb{Q}}\to\operatorname{Spec}\mathbb{Q}$ is a morphism of schemes with finite fibre but it is not of finite type.

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