# Finding the number of distinct sub-strings in a binary string.

Whilst solving a question, I have come across a problem regarding the maximal number of possible distinct $k$-length binary sub-strings in an $n$-length binary string.

My thought process was that if you take some $n$-length binary string, then the number of possible sub-strings could be found as follows:

$$\sum_{k=1}^{n}{n-k+1}=n^{2}-\frac{n(n+1)}{2}+n=\frac{n^{2}+n}{2}$$

But this doesn't take into account the maximum possible number of distinct sub-strings, which will be $2^{k}$, when we're looking for sub-strings of length $k$.

Does anyone have any suggestions as to how I could find the maximal number of distinct sub-strings (of length $k\le n$) contained within some binary string of length $n$?

Thanks in advance!

• Calculate it for some small values of $n$, then look it up in the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. – Gerry Myerson Jun 16 '12 at 12:31

## 2 Answers

I took my own advice: it's "Maximal number of distinct nonempty substrings of any binary string of length n." It seems that there is a question about this sequence that is very simple to state but is still open.

• Ahh, so as yet there is no known closed-form to solve this problem? – Thomas Russell Jun 16 '12 at 12:37
• That's my interpretation of what it says at the OEIS. – Gerry Myerson Jun 16 '12 at 12:51

"On the maximum number of distinct factors of a binary string" (also here), by Jeffrey Shallit, proves that the answer (the attained maximum number of distinct factors of a length-$n$ binary string) is $$\binom{n-k+1}{2}+2^{k+1}-1,$$ where $k$ is the unique integer such that $$2^k + k - 1\ \le\ n\ \lt\ 2^{k+1}+(k+1)-1.$$ (This counts the empty string as a factor of every string.)

NB: A "closed form" for the answer can be found by noting that $k$ is just $\lfloor x \rfloor$, where $x$ is the real number such that $$2^x + x - 1=n.$$ Now, the substitutions \begin{align} X &:= \log(2)\ (n-x+1)\\ Y &:= \log(2)\ 2^{n+1} \end{align} transform this equation into $$X\ e^X = Y$$ whose solution is $$X = W(Y),$$ where $W$ is the (principal branch of) the Lambert $W$ function.

Therefore, $$\log(2)\ (n-x+1) = W(\log(2)\ 2^{n+1})$$ giving
$$k = \left\lfloor n+1-\frac{W(\log(2)\ 2^{n+1})}{\log(2)}\right\rfloor.$$

NB: Some comments at the OEIS link refer to the above results as "conjectures", in spite of the proof given in the cited paper.