I came across the following expression: $[m + 2r + 2\sum_{i \in S}{x_i}]_{x_0}$. What does the subscripted bracket notation mean?

Context: Found in this paper https://eprint.iacr.org/2009/616.pdf. Page 6, Section 3.1, in description of "Encrypt" function.

  • $\begingroup$ Can you give some context, i.e. where you found this expression? $\endgroup$
    – HDE 226868
    Commented Nov 16, 2015 at 23:01

1 Answer 1


In section 2, the paper gives this definition:

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