Occasionally I see the $\mp$ symbol, but I don't really know what it is for, except in conjunction with the $\pm$ symbol thus: $a \pm b \mp c$ which (I believe) means $a+b-c$ or $a-b+c$ (please correct me if I am wrong). Is there any other mathematical usage for the $\mp$ symbol, particularly on its own ?
$\mp$ really only has a use when written in the same expressions as $\pm$.
The one that comes to mind is $\cos (\alpha \pm \beta) = \cos \alpha \cos \beta \mp \sin \alpha \sin \beta$.
But I suppose if you really wanted to, you could write things like $\sin(\alpha \mp \beta) = \sin \alpha \cos \beta \mp \cos \alpha \sin \beta$... if you really wanted to.
On a more humorous vein, it wouldn't surprise me if someone overloaded the symbol to have a different meaning too. Most likely someone like Conway (as in, Combinatorial Game Theory Conway, not Complex Analysis Conway), who thought $+_n$ was a perfectly good name for a state of a game (not an operation).
On a non-mathematical note, $\pm$ denotes an advantageous position for white in chess. $\mp$ denotes a position for black.
If we really go for it, $\mp$ looks like (干) wiki page, which means 'to dry' in Japanese and might mean 'to do' in Mandarin. $\pm$ looks like (士)wiki page, which might mean 'gentleman' in Japanese and is used in the symbols for doctorate and doctor's thesis.
Like the other answerer, I've only seen it used in the same line as a $\pm$, to mean "positive when the other term is negative and negative when the other term is positive." So, for instance, if we were to say
$\pm a = \mp b$
that would imply that
$ a = -b $
$ -a = b $