The core of studying matrices is to study linear transformations between vector spaces. These can be realized as matrix multiplication on the left (or right) of column (or row) vectors.
If we are in this setup: $x\mapsto Ax$ for a column vector $x$ and appropriate matrix $A$, then the image of the linear transformation will be spanned by the columns of $A$.
The kernel of the transformation (nullspace) is the set of all $x$ such that $Ax=0$ is important for understanding the solutions to some matrix equations. You probably have already learned that if $x_0$ is a solution to $Ax=b$, then every other solution is given by $x_0+k$ where $k$ is in the nullspace.
This all has analogous explanation on the other side. If we are in this setup: $x\mapsto xA$ for a row vector $x$, then the image of the linear transformation is now spanned by the rows of $A$.
Talking about the nullspace of $A^T$ is just a fancy way of dressing up the "left nullspace" of $A$, since $xA=0$ iff $A^T x^T=0$. The nullspace is now the set of all $x$ such that $xA=0$, and you can draw the same conclusions about solutions to $xA=b$.
In short, these four spaces (really just two spaces, with a left and a right version of the pair) carry all the information about the image and kernel of the linear transformation that $A$ is affecting, whether you are using it on the right or on the left.