# Matrix values increasing after SVD, singular value decomposition

I am trying to learn SVD for image processing... like compression.

My approach: get image as BufferedImage using ImageIO... get RGB values and use them to get the equivalent grayscale value (which lies within 0-255) and store it in a double[][] array. And use that array in SVD to compress it.

I am getting my USV matrices correctly... hope so. I get from U from AATranspose (AAT), and V from ATA.

Let me give an example

A is my original matrix.

A = 7.0     3.0     2.0
9.0     7.0     5.0
9.0     8.0     7.0
5.0     3.0     6.0

U = -0.34598    -0.65267    -0.59969    -0.30771
-0.57482    -0.27634     0.26045     0.72484
-0.64327     0.21214     0.44200    -0.58808
-0.36889     0.67280    -0.61415     0.18463

S = 21.57942    0.00000    0.00000
0.00000    3.35324    0.00000
0.00000    0.00000    2.02097
0.00000    0.00000    0.00000

VT = -0.70573    -0.52432    -0.47649
-0.53158    -0.05275     0.84536
-0.46838     0.84989    -0.24149


So now I have to do outer product expansion, leaving out a few terms for compression. Lets call the truncated terms k.

When I let k = 1, and do outer product expansion with the singular values, this is what I get as my new matrix

B = 6.43235    4.03003    1.70732
9.24653    6.55266    5.12711
9.41838    7.24083    7.21571
4.41866    4.05485    5.70027


As you can see, some values in B (which I think should be my final matrix after SVD) are greater than my original matrix.

A is just a test matrix. I would later try to compress a grayscale image, and there the values have to be 0-255. Anything > 255 wouldn't help me.

Where am I going wrong?

• Is it only the fact that some values are larger that makes you think that you are doing something wrong? – Calle Oct 12 '15 at 19:25
• @Calle... to be honest, yes. This is the first time I am doing this. I would be using this to compress an image which has R G B components in 0-255. Even a single component > 255 would fail the compressed image creation. – Jeet Parekh Oct 12 '15 at 19:27

An example follows. Start with $\mathbf{A}$, a picture (here Camille Jordan), and perform perform a low rank approximation up through the first 4 singular values.
The input picture was adjusted so that the values are bound within the interval $[0,1]$. The table below shows how the extrema drift with each approximation. The graphics tools clipped the values to maintain the interval $[0,1]$.