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I am looking for a closed form (or efficient algorithm) for $f(n)$, the number of ways in which $n$ can be written as a product of natural numbers $\geq 2$. Note that $f(n)=\sum_{i=1}^{\Omega(n)}{g(n,i)}$, where $g(n,i)$ is the number of ways in which $n$ can be written as a product of $i$ natural numbers $\geq 2$ and $\Omega(n)$ is the total number of prime factors of $n$. If helpful, we can assume that we're given the prime factorization of $n$.

For example, if $n=40$, then we have the following:

$\Omega(40)=\Omega(2^35^1)=3+1=4$

$g(40,1)=1: (40)$

$g(40,2)=3: (20, 2), (10, 4), (8, 5)$

$g(40,3)=2: (10, 2, 2), (5, 4, 2)$

$g(40,4)=1: (5, 2, 2, 2)$

so $f(40)=7$

Partition (number theory) - Restricted part size or number of parts has potentially useful results. It's easy to get $g(n,2)$, as it's just $\frac{d(n)-2}{2}$, where $d(n)$ is the number of divisors of $n$.

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Among several possible approaches we can view this problem as a straightforward application of the Polya Enumeration Theorem and very similar to the problem discussed at this MSE link.

Recall the recurrence by Lovasz for the cycle index $Z(S_n)$ of the multiset operator $\mathfrak{M}_{=n}$ on $n$ slots, which is $$Z(S_n) = \frac{1}{n} \sum_{l=1}^n a_l Z(S_{n-l}) \quad\text{where}\quad Z(S_0) = 1.$$

Suppose the prime factorization of $n$ is given by $$n=\prod_p p^v.$$

Applying PET it now follows almost by inspection that the desired count of multiplicative partitions into $k$ factors is given by the term $$F(n, k) = \left[\prod_p X_p^v\right] Z(S_k)\left(-1 + \prod_p \frac{1}{1-X_p}\right)$$ where the square bracket denotes coefficient extraction of formal power series.

We are interested in $$G(n) = \sum_{k=1}^{\Omega(n)} F(n, k).$$

Now recall the generating function of the cycle index of the symmetric group which is $$H(z) = \sum_{q\ge 0} Z(S_q) z^q = \exp\left(a_1z + a_2\frac{z^2}{2} + a_3\frac{z^3}{3}+\cdots\right) = \exp\left(\sum_{l\ge 1} a_l \frac{z^l}{l}\right).$$

This gives for $G(n)$ $$G(n) = \left[\prod_p X_p^v\right] \exp\left(\sum_{l\ge 1} \frac{1}{l} \left(-1 + \prod_p \frac{1}{1-X_p^l}\right)\right).$$

Recalling $v_p(n)$ which is the exponent of the maximum power of $p$ that divides $n$ we finally obtain

$$G(n) = \left[\prod_p X_p^v\right] \exp\left(\sum_{l=1}^{\max_p v_p(n)} \frac{1}{l} \left(-1 + \prod_p \frac{1}{1-X_p^l}\right)\right).$$

This formula has a certain aesthetic value. Implemented in Maple it will produce the following sequence: $$1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3, 2, 2, 1, 4, 1, 2, 2, 5, 1, 4, 1, 4, \\ 2, 2, 1, 7, 2, 2, 3, 4, 1, 5, 1, 7, 2, 2, 2, 9, 1, 2, 2, 7, \\ 1, 5, 1, 4, 4, 2, 1, 12, \ldots$$

which points us to OEIS A001055 where additional information awaits, including simple recurrences for practical computation of this function.

The Maple code for the above formula is as follows (here we have replaced the prime number index on the variable $X$ by a positional index on the variable $Y$):

with(numtheory);

facts :=
proc(n)
    option remember;
    local f, gf, p, res;

    f := op(2, ifactors(n));
    gf := exp(add(1/l*
                  (-1+mul(1/(1-Y[p]^l), p=1..nops(f))),
                  l=1..max(map(p->p[2], f))));

    res := gf;
    for p to nops(f) do
        res := coeftayl(res, Y[p]=0, f[p][2]);
    od;

    res;
end;
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