Prove that the following functions defined in $R\to R$ are neither injective nor surjective.
Since the injective test says if $f(x_1)=f(x_2)\Rightarrow x_1=x_2$,then $f(x)$ is injective otherwise not.And the Surjective test says that for every $y\in R$,there is a $x\in R$.
When i apply above injective test,the simplification goes messy and does not come $x_1=x_2$ and surjective test is also not working for these functions.
When i graphed these functions on desmos.com graphing calculator,i can see that it is not injective because horizontal test fails.But how to check surjective by looking at the graph?
Are these two methods available or other methods are there for checking surjectivity and injectivity of these type of complicated functions.
Please help me.