# solving definite integral problems without complex line integral

It is well known that some definite integrals such as $$\int_{0}^{\pi} \frac{dx}{a+\cos{x}}$$ $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin{x}}{x}dx$$ are solved by using complex analysis techniques. (It uses residue theorem.)

But some of them are proved by only substitution like Harish Chandra Rajpoot answer. $$\int_{0}^{\pi} \log(\sin{x}) dx =-\pi\log{2}$$ (See definite integral without using complex line integral)

Are there any definite integral problems those cannot be soloved without complex line integral tecniques?

• No, but there might be easier solutions than using complex line integral techniques. – skyking Sep 2 '15 at 12:01
• I'm interested, in which sense your first integral converges? – tired Sep 2 '15 at 12:08
• And yes there are example where i'm quite confident that the only way to get a solution is by complex integration techniques, see here for more information: math.stackexchange.com/questions/253910/… – tired Sep 2 '15 at 12:10
• @this_is_an_apple The first integral can be done without residues. It can be done with High School Calculus, provided that a>1 because otherwise the integral is divergent (denom has zeros) And that upper limit should not be infinity, perhaps it could be 2pi? – imranfat Sep 2 '15 at 19:07
• Another very hard nut to crack without some form of complex analysis may be math.stackexchange.com/questions/1200613/… – Jack D'Aurizio Sep 2 '15 at 20:44