I have also posted this on Puzzling.SE which should be a better fit.
John Herschel sent a letter to Charles Babbage in which he included this hieroglyphic with the message "Interpret it, it contains a great discovery". Personally I have no clue what it could mean.
The figure at the centre is described as: "Dionysius the God of Functions, alias the genius of numerical magnitude."
I didn't know what to tag this, please feel free to improve the tagging.
More pictures can be found here: http://www.bradyharanblog.com/blog/2015/7/10/herschels-mysterious-doodle-1
And a video on it can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vn-0zSuAWpI