I am having a hard time understanding why the chain rule works. When going over a theorm, or feature of the maths in general, one starts of with the easiest examples to get to grips with said concept.
So, now I am studying the chain rule for derivatives, where:
$$f(g(x)) = f´(g(x) g´(x).$$
Right then, so the most simple example out there are linear functions, I mean there their own derivatives. Ok, so lets set $f(x)$ and $g(x)$:
$$f(x) = 2x$$
$$g(x) = 3x$$
Well you don't even need the chain rule, it's obviously $6x$, though I wanted to test its legitimacy, so I obtain, via the chain rule, the following:
$$f´(g(x) = 2 (3x) = 6x.$$
$$g'(x) = 3.$$
So $(6x)3 = 18x$. And whilst this IS true, this is not what we get if we take $f(g(x))$, which = $6x$, and if this wasn't a linear equation, then of course, $f(g(x))$ would not be it's own derivative, but since we are, then we know that either
a) I made a mistake, or
b) The chain rule does work.
I doubt it's case (b), I really don't question the validity of the chain rule, as I've seen it applied to non-linear functions, and I am myself have worked with the chain rule for non-linears. However, why is it that in the most simplistic example, the chain rule does not appear to be working? Maybe it's only valid for certain types of functions?
I cannot eliminate the possibility of case (a). That I am wrong, as to be honest it's likely that, but I have taken the liberty of showing that I am capable of applying the chain rule to some non-linear equations:
So, hopefully this adds competence to my question, as it seems to work with powers of x greater than one, yet there seems to be some issues when x is linear.
Edit So, because of the (very appreciated) replies given, my main concern now that I cannot see how how f´(g(x)) could equal 2. My understanding was that f´ = 2, and is being multiplied by g(x) = 3x.
As in the f(x) = x^2, g(x) = x^3 example, I was drawing upon the parallel that f´(x) = 2x, as this is just applying the power rule, where x is x^3 (because g(x) = x^3), so this is just 2x^3.
Anyway, from that, I gathered that if f(x) now equals 2x, then ´f(x) = 2, which then is multiplied by g(x) = 3x, to derive 6x.