Finding argument of complex number and conversion into polar form

How do I find the argument of a complex number, for example $z = 3 + 4i$?

I know the polar form of $z$ is $r(\cos\theta + i\sin\theta)$ where $r$ is the modulus of $z$ ($\sqrt{3^2+4^2}$) which would leave me with $z = 5(\cos\theta+i\sin\theta)$, I'm just unsure how to deduce $\theta$ here.

The textbook says two things: $\theta = \arg(z)$ and $\tan\theta = b/a$, I'm not sure how these help.

Hint: irrespective of $|z|$, you will get $\tan(\theta)=\frac{4}{3}$. So, taking the inverse will give you $\theta$ in radians.

Your textbook says that if you have $z = a+ bi$ then $\tan \theta = \frac{b}{a}$ so that $$\theta = \arctan \frac{b}{a}$$

In your case, this is $\theta = \arctan \frac{4}{3}$ for $z = 3+ 4i$. Although, really, the convention for the argument makes this not so straightforward. The Wikipedia article explains the computation of the argument well.

It is true that $\tan\theta=\frac{b}{a}$, but you have to be careful because $\tan\theta=\tan(\theta+\pi)$. If $a$ and $b$ are both negative, $\arctan(b/a)$ will not give you the right answer, you have to do $\arctan(b/a)+\pi$ (since $b/a=(-b)/(-a)$). You also have to be careful if one of $a$ or $b$ is negative.

For the first quadrant in the complex plane we know that the argument is given by:

$$\arg\left(z\right)=\tan^{-1}\frac{\Im(z)}{\Re(z)}\Longrightarrow \arg(a+bi)=\tan^{-1}\left(\frac{b}{a}\right)$$

And we know that:

$$a+bi=|a+bi|e^{\arg(a+bi)i}=|a+bi|(\cos(\arg(a+bi))+\sin(\arg(a+bi))i)$$

$$3+4i=|3+4i|e^{\arg(3+4i)i}=|3+4i|(\cos(\arg(3+4i))+\sin(\arg(3+4i))i)=$$

$$\sqrt{3^2+4^2}e^{\tan^{-1}\left(\frac{4}{3}\right)i}=\sqrt{25}e^{\tan^{-1}\left(\frac{4}{3}\right)i}=5e^{\tan^{-1}\left(\frac{4}{3}\right)i}$$

So the three forms are:

$$3+4i=$$ $$5e^{\tan^{-1}\left(\frac{4}{3}\right)i}=$$ $$5\left(\cos\left(\tan^{-1}\left(\frac{4}{3}\right)\right)+\sin\left(\tan^{-1}\left(\frac{4}{3}\right)\right)i\right)$$

If $Z =a+ib$ is a complex number

$|Z|=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}$

$\theta=argZ$

if Z lies in $Q_{1} then \theta=\tan^{-1}(\frac{b}{a})$

if Z lies in $Q_{2}then \theta=\pi-tan^{-1}(\frac{b}{a})$

if Z lies in $Q_{3} then \theta=-\pi+tan^{-1}(\frac{b}{a})$

if Z lies in $Q_{4} then \theta=-tan^{-1}(\frac{b}{a})$