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In how many ways 3 numbers can be chosen from a from the set {1, ..., 18} so that their sum is divisible by 3?

Now, I've seen the solution, but I can't get my head around one detail. The solution goes as follows: $$3C^{6}_{3}+C^{6}_{1}C^{6}_{1}C^{6}_{1}=216+60=276$$

The question is: Why do we need to multiply $C^{6}_{3}$ by $3$ ?

Thanks in advance!

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  • $\begingroup$ @GerryMyerson They fixed it $\endgroup$ – mysatellite Jun 22 '15 at 13:47
  • $\begingroup$ Are you counting ordered sums? Is $\{1,2,3\}$ the same as $\{1,3,2\}$? Are repetitions allowed? This question, as is, is not complete $\endgroup$ – Thomas Andrews Jun 22 '15 at 13:52
  • $\begingroup$ I thought it was clear that if you add up {1, 2, 3} you get the same as when you add up {1, 3, 2}. $\endgroup$ – pr12015 Jun 22 '15 at 14:08
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For the sum to be divisible by $3$, either all numbers must be congruent to each other mod $3$, or all numbers must be different mod $3$.

All numbers congruent mod $3$: there are $3$ congruence classes to choose with $6$ numbers a piece. So we get $3 {6 \choose 3}$ if you aren't allowed to repeat, and $3 \cdot 6^3$ if you are. (Presumably you aren't, by your formula.) If you don't multiply by $3$ here, you're only counting one of the 3 congruence classes.

All numbers distinct mod $3$: now you get $6^3$, since you're choosing one from each set of $6$.

So the final answer is $$ 6^3 + 3{6 \choose 3} $$ as you have written.

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  • $\begingroup$ You are also assuming order doesn't matter. $\endgroup$ – Thomas Andrews Jun 22 '15 at 13:54
  • $\begingroup$ @hunter got it. It was a silly after all. I overlooked the fact that no matter what group i chose 3 numbers from, their sum is divisible by 3. Thanks for that. $\endgroup$ – pr12015 Jun 23 '15 at 10:40
  • $\begingroup$ @ThomasAndrews there is nothing to assume here. The queastion itself guarantees the 'assumption'. $\endgroup$ – pr12015 Jun 23 '15 at 10:42

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