Quoting Hayden from the first link,
You can use Rational Root Theorem to show a polynomial is irreducible (over $\mathbb Q$) when the degree is 2 or 3, but for any higher degree you would need to do more than just that. .. .For example, $(x^2+1)^2$ doesn't have any rational roots, but that doesn't mean it's irreducible.
which is true.
Now, in a general case, if a polynomial has a root in a field $\mathbb F$, then it can easily be concluded that it is not irreducible over $\mathbb F$.
My question is,
1) Are there any established results with conditions under which a polynomial's irreducibility over $\mathbb F$ (Or in particular well known Fields like $\mathbb Q$ or $\mathbb R$ etc) is only dependent on it having no roots in $\mathbb F$? (As Hayden mentioned, for polynomials of degree 2,3 in $\mathbb Q$, irreducibility over $\mathbb Q$ can be proved by showing it has no rational roots - are there any such similar conditions for higher polynomials, in general case?)
2) For irreducibility over $\mathbb Q$, are there certain classes of polynomials identified (like $(x^n+1)^k,n\ge2,k\ge2$) which are not irreducible even if they don't have roots in $\mathbb Q$?