How to solve following integral?

Any hints for the above integral ?

$$\int{e^{x^2}} dx =?$$

I use change of variable $t=x^{2}$. so, $$\frac{1}{2}\int{\frac{e^{t}}{t^{\frac{1}{2}}}dt}$$

But I could not solve it!


  • 6
    $\begingroup$ This is an integral wich cannot be expressed in terms of standard functions. $\endgroup$ – abcdef Apr 19 '15 at 16:29
  • 8
    $\begingroup$ There is no closed form, maybe you are looking for: $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}e^{-x^2}dx=\sqrt{\pi}$$ Which can be derivated by using polar coordinates on: $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}e^{-(x^2+y^2)}dx\:dy$$ $\endgroup$ – Uncountable Apr 19 '15 at 16:30
  • $\begingroup$ See error function, Liouville's theorem, and the Risch algorithm. $\endgroup$ – Lucian Apr 19 '15 at 17:09
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Is this really not a duplicate of a previous question? $\endgroup$ – GEdgar Apr 22 '15 at 17:03
  • $\begingroup$ See Dawson function and this article, which I found in an answer to this question. Not the same Dawson, by the way. $\endgroup$ – Jean-Claude Arbaut Apr 22 '15 at 18:07

The integral which you describe has no closed form which is to say that it cannot be expressed in elementary functions.

For example, you can express $\int x^2 \mathrm{d}x$ in elementary functions such as $\frac{x^3}{3} +C$. However, the indefinite integral from $(-\infty,\infty)$ does exist and it is $\sqrt{\pi}$ so explicitly:

$$\int^{\infty}_{-\infty} e^{-x^2} = \sqrt{\pi}$$

Note the difference in your integral and in the integral above, there is a negative sign in the one above. The integral you have does not converge for the specified bounds.

Also look at Risch Algorithm and the ERF Function.


$\int e^{x^2}~dx$




Don't even think about it, it is known to have no closed form.

  • $\begingroup$ "No closed form" is too vague. Better to say, "not an elementary function". $\endgroup$ – GEdgar Apr 19 '15 at 17:12
  • $\begingroup$ @GEdgar: Agreed. $\endgroup$ – Alex M. Apr 19 '15 at 17:12
  • $\begingroup$ @GEdgar: Is there anything that can be done against the monkeys that have just discovered the downvote button? $\endgroup$ – Alex M. Apr 23 '15 at 21:55

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