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Given the recurrence relation : $a_{n+1} - a_n = 2n + 3$ , how would I solve this?

I have attempted this question, but I did not get the answer given in the answer key.

First I found the general homogenous solution which is $C(r)^n$ where the root is 1 so we get $C(1)^n$. Then I found the particular non homogenous solution which was $A_1(n) + A_0$.

I then plugged the particular solution into the given recurrence relation and solved for $A_0$ and $A_1$. I got $A_0 = -1$ and $A_1 = 5$. After further steps I got

$a_n = 5n-1 + 2(1)^n$

That answer is however completely off, in the answer key they have

$a_n = (n+1)^2$. Can someone explain to me how to arrive at this answer?

EDIT: Initial condition is that $n\ge 0$ and $a_0 = 1$.

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  • $\begingroup$ What is the initial condition? $\endgroup$ – Math1000 Mar 6 '15 at 0:21
  • $\begingroup$ Sorry, let me edit that in! $\endgroup$ – Belphegor Mar 6 '15 at 0:23
  • $\begingroup$ Is the approach I used correct in anyway? $\endgroup$ – Belphegor Mar 6 '15 at 0:32
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Let $$f(x) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n x^n.$$ Multiplying both sides of the given recurrence equation by $x^n$ and summing over $n\geqslant0$, the left-hand side becomes $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_{n+1}x^n-\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_nx^n = \frac1x\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_{n+1}x^{n+1} - f(x) = \frac1x\left(f(x)-1\right)+f(x).$$ The right-hand side becomes $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty (2n+3)x^n = 2\sum_{n=0}^\infty(n+1)x^n + \sum_{n=0}^\infty x^n=\frac2{(1-x)^2}+\frac1{1-x}. $$ Equating the two we have $$\frac1x\left(f(x)-1\right)+f(x) = \frac2{(1-x)^2}+\frac1{1-x},$$ and solving for $f(x)$, $$f(x) = \frac{1+x}{(1-x)^3}. $$ Now $$\frac1{(1-x)^3}=\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac12(n+1)(n+2)x^n = 1 + \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac12(n+1)(n+2)x^n, $$ and $$\frac x{(1-x)^3}=\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac12(n+1)(n+2)x^{n+1} = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac12n(n+1)x^n. $$ Hence $$ \begin{align*} \frac{1+x}{(1-x)^3} &= 1 + \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac12(n+1)(n+2)x^n + \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac12n(n+1)x^n\\ &= 1 + \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac12(n+1)(n+n+2)x^n\\ &= 1 + \sum_{n=1}^\infty(n+1)^2x^n\\ &= \sum_{n=0}(n+1)^2x^n. \end{align*} $$ It follows that $a_n=(n+1)^2$ for $n\geqslant0$.

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  • $\begingroup$ How did you go from 1+x/(1-x)^3 to the next step? $\endgroup$ – Belphegor Mar 6 '15 at 0:49
  • $\begingroup$ $\frac{1+x}{(1-x)^3}=\frac1{(1-x)^3} + \frac x{(1-x)^3}$ and the series expansion for $\frac1{(1-x)^3}$. $\endgroup$ – Math1000 Mar 6 '15 at 0:51
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    $\begingroup$ Your technique makes sense, but I don't understand why i didn't see your way of doing it in my textbook o.o..What is this technique called? $\endgroup$ – Belphegor Mar 6 '15 at 0:58
  • $\begingroup$ Generating functions. They're really nifty and you can do all sorts of things with them. Here's a great introduction: math.upenn.edu/~wilf/DownldGF.html $\endgroup$ – Math1000 Mar 6 '15 at 1:08
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There is a theorem which is somewhat intuitive that says that if you take $\sum_{j=0}^n P(j)$ where $P$ is a polynomial of degree $d$, then the answer will be a polynomial in $n$ of degree $d + 1$. If you know this, then you can just plug in the values for $n = 0,1,2$ and then solve the arising linear system of equations to find the coefficients of your quadratic polynomial solution.

For a more direct solution for your case, note that adding up $3$ exactly $N$ times will result in a term of $3N$. So it only remains to see what happens when you add up $2n$ for $n=1 \ldots, N$. To see what this equals, note that you can double the sequence $1,2, \ldots N$ and write the duplicate copy in reverse order $N,N-1,\ldots,1$. lining up with the original sequence. Then you have twice the sum if you add all the terms , but every pair of lined up terms adds up to $N+1$ and you have $N$ pairs of terms. Thus the sum is $N(N+1)/2$. This is all you need to show that your solution must be a quadratic polynomial.

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  • $\begingroup$ So my original approach cannot be used? $\endgroup$ – Belphegor Mar 6 '15 at 0:28
  • $\begingroup$ Something went wrong when you attempted to solve for the non-homogeneous part of the solution. You should have gotten $an^2 + bn + c$ for the general form, which is also what is stipulated in the theorem I quoted. $\endgroup$ – user2566092 Mar 6 '15 at 0:32
  • $\begingroup$ Ah yes, I had a feeling that it was there, but the reason why I wrote what you see now is because according to my chart, if the right side has 'n' on it then the particular solution of the non homogenous relation is A_1(n) + A_0 $\endgroup$ – Belphegor Mar 6 '15 at 0:36
  • $\begingroup$ Actually, I might have interpreted the table wrong, but how would I solve for the particular solution if my logic was wrong? $\endgroup$ – Belphegor Mar 6 '15 at 0:39
  • $\begingroup$ One way to see that it must be a quadratic polynomial is to note that a sum of constant terms is a linear polynomial, and if you take a sum of pure linear terms $n$ then you can arrange them in a triangle that makes up half a rectangle by cutting the rectangle down the diagonal, and thus see that a sum of linear terms is a quadratic polynomial. $\endgroup$ – user2566092 Mar 6 '15 at 0:48

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