I have 173 million pieces of candy. There are 5 students. In how many ways can this distribution be made, assuming that each student receives at least 1 million candies, Student B receives at most 10 million candies, and Student C receives at most 30 million candies, and Student D is to receive at least 5 million candies?

I can do this with a generating function, but have no idea how to approach this with inclusion and exclusion.

  • $\begingroup$ Naming them student B, C, and D is confusing. Where is student A? $\endgroup$ – Mike Pierce Feb 24 '15 at 23:48
  • $\begingroup$ @mapierce271 Student A is just set to receive at least 1 million candies. All I'm trying to say is that of the 5 students, 3 of them have their own unique requirements. $\endgroup$ – Nxt3 Feb 24 '15 at 23:53

Give one million candies to $A,B,C,E$ and five million to $D$ (We have to do it anyways so lets get it out of the way). We now have $164$ million and the only requirements are that $B$ gets at most $9$ million and $C$ gets at most $29$ million.

There are $\binom{164,000,004}{4}$ ways to distribute the coins ignoring the upper limit to the candy for $B$ and $C$ because of stars and bars.

Now use inclusion exclusion: How many ways are there in which $B$ gets more than $9$ million(Call this $b$). How many ways are there in which $C$ gets more than $9$ million (Call this $c$), how many ways are there in which $B$ gets more than $9$ million and $C$ more than $29$ million(call this $m$)?

You can solve each of these problems via stars and bars.

at the end your solution will be

$\binom{164,000,004}{4}-b-c+m$ by inclusion exclusion.

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  • $\begingroup$ Are $b, c \space and \space m$ exclusive? Are we going to figure out $b$ using the total number of candies (173m), or 164m? $\endgroup$ – Nxt3 Feb 25 '15 at 0:39
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    $\begingroup$ Using 164. $a$ $b$ and $m$ are not exlusive. You have to substact the $b$ bad cases, the bad $c$ cases and then add back the $m$ cases which are in both $b$ and $c$ and where substracted twice. $\endgroup$ – Jorge Fernández Hidalgo Feb 25 '15 at 0:48
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    $\begingroup$ It should be chose 4, I made a typo. I don't understand the first wuestion though. $\endgroup$ – Jorge Fernández Hidalgo Feb 25 '15 at 0:55
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    $\begingroup$ Oh yeah, my bad. $\endgroup$ – Jorge Fernández Hidalgo Feb 25 '15 at 0:59
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    $\begingroup$ You have to use stars and bars. First give $9,000,001$ to $B$. You now have $154,999,999$ candies to give freely. So there are $\binom{155,000,003}{4}$ ways to give out the candies. So $b$ is that binomial coefficient. $\endgroup$ – Jorge Fernández Hidalgo Feb 25 '15 at 1:20

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