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I'm looking to describe the feasible set of $x_1, \ldots, x_n$ for the following inequality:

$$a_1\cos x_1 + a_2\cos x_2 + \cdots+ a_n\cos x_n \ge 0$$

For variables $x_1, \ldots, x_n$ restricted to domain $-k\pi \le x_i \le k\pi$ , $k \ge 1$ an integer, and $a_i$ are real numbers.

Is this even possible to describe analytically?

EDIT - I should mention that numerical methods would be very welcome as well. For example, if the problem could somehow be split up into finding $x$ satisfying the intersection of a bunch of convex sets that would be fantastic.

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  • $\begingroup$ What if you let $w_i = a_i \cos x_i$? Then you have $\Sigma_i w_i \geq 0$, and $|w_i| \leq a_i$ for all $i$. $\endgroup$ – Théophile Feb 11 '15 at 18:11
  • $\begingroup$ What if $a_i \lt 0$? Then the absolute sign constraint can't be met. $\endgroup$ – JDS Feb 11 '15 at 21:45
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    $\begingroup$ Right, I meant $|w_i| \leq |a_i|$. Then from any solution to this system, you can retrieve values for the $x_i$. $\endgroup$ – Théophile Feb 12 '15 at 16:42
  • $\begingroup$ How does that condition imply the original equation is $\ge 0$? Want to post an answer explaining more in depth how to find $x$? Thanks for the ideas. $\endgroup$ – JDS Feb 12 '15 at 20:38
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Not an answer, but to get some intuition on what kind of regions you might get it is useful to take the simplest cases $n=2$ and $n=3$ and just plot the regions.

Below is a plot of the allowed region for two choices of $a = (a_1,a_2)$ for $n=2$ and two choices of $a=(a_1,a_2,a_3)$ for $n=3$. We see that depening on the vector $a$ the regions go from being a tilted chess-board (when $a$ is tilted $45^\circ$ wrt the coordinate axes) to stripes (in the limit of $a$ being aligned with one of the coordinate axes).

The Mathematica code to do this is for $n=2$:

a = {1, -1};

v = {Cos[x], Cos[y]};

f[x_, y_] = If[a.v < 0, -1, 1];

ContourPlot[f[x, y], {x, -10, 10}, {y, -10, 10}, Contours -> {0.0}]

and for $n=3$ use

ContourPlot3D[f[x, y, z], {x, -10, 10}, {y, -10, 10}, {z, -10, 10}, Contours -> {0.0}]

$$(a_1,a_2) = \{1,-1\}$$

$~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~$enter image description here

$$(a_1,a_2) = \{1,1/2\}$$

$~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~$enter image description here

$$(a_1,a_2,a_3) = \{1,1,-2\}$$

$~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~$enter image description here

$$(a_1,a_2,a_3) = \{2,1,1\}$$

$~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~$enter image description here

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