# Maximum number of edges in a bipartite graph

Prove that for a bipartite graph $G$ on $n$ vertices the number of edges in $G$ is at most $\frac{n^2}{4}$.

I used induction on $n$.

Induction hypothesis: Suppose for a bipartite graph with less than $n$ vertices the result holds true.

Now take a bipartite graph on $n$ vertices.Let $x,y$ be two vertices in $G$ where an edge exist between $x$ and $y$. Now remove these two vertices from $G$ and consider this graph $G'$. $G'$ has at most ${(n-2)^2}\over4$. Add these two vertices back. Then the number of edges $G$ can have is at most

$$|E(G')|+d(x)+d(y)-1$$

My question is in my proof I took $d(x) + d(y) \le n$, where $d(x)$ denotes the degree of vertex $x$. Can I consider $d(x)+d(y) \leq n$? I thought the maximum number of edges is obtained at the situation $K_{\frac n 2,\frac n 2}$

• Yes- $\frac{n}{2} \cdot \frac{n}{2} = \frac{n^{2}}{4}$. If $n$ is even, this works out very well. Otherwise, $n$ is odd. So one partition will have an extra vertex. – ml0105 Jan 10 '15 at 6:26
• $d(x)+d(y)\leq n$ looks valid. You didn't mention your two base cases to get the induction started. Can you add that? Also a brief nod in the direction of the emptying of one part of G in the case where x or y is the last node in its part. – Joffan Jan 10 '15 at 6:35

There is no need to use induction here. A bipartite graph is divided into two pieces, say of size $p$ and $q$, where $p+q=n$. Then the maximum number of edges is $pq$. Using calculus we can deduce that this product is maximal when $p=q$, in which case it is equal to $n^2/4$.

To show the product is maximal when $p=q$, set $q=n-p$. Then we are trying to maximize $f(p)=p(n-p)$ on $[0,n]$. We have $f'(p)=n-2p$, and this is zero when $p=n/2$. After checking the end points we conclude that the maximum is $n^2/4$ at $p=n/2$.

• How can it be shown that product is maximal when p=q – sam_rox Jan 10 '15 at 7:06
• @sam_rox please see edit. – Matt Samuel Jan 10 '15 at 7:10
• you can also write $p$ as $\frac{n}{2}-l$ and use the trick at the bottom of my result. – Jorge Fernández Hidalgo Jan 10 '15 at 7:20

The sum of the degrees of vertices $x$ and $y$ is indeed less than or equal to $n$. One reason for this is that if a vertex $v$ is adjacent to $x$ it cannot be adjacent to $y$ since $y$ and $v$ would be in the same part.

I would like to share my proof, please tell me what you think of it: The bipartite graph on $n$ vertices with the most edges is clearly a complete bipartite graph, otherwise we could take that graph, add an edge and we would have a graph with more edges.

In a complete bipartite graph with parts of size $k,n-k$ the vertices in the part with $k$ vertices have order $n-k$ and the vertices in the part with $n-k$ vertices have order $k$. The sum of the degrees is then $2k(n-k)$, so by the handshaking lemma the number of edges is $k(n-k)$

Now write $k$ as $\frac{n}{2}-j$. Then $k(n-k)=(\frac{n}{2}-j)(\frac{n}{2}+j)=\frac{n^2}{4}-l^2\leq \frac{n^2}{4}$

suppose the bipartite graph has m vertices in set1 and n vertices in set2 . the sum of degrees of all vertices would be 2 * e= 2 * m * n thus, e = m * n and m+n = v so n*(v-n)= e solve this quadratic equation and discriminant .

Suppose $p,q$ are nonnegative integers with $p+q=n,$ and that $K_{p,q}$ has the maximum number of edges among all bipartite graphs with $n$ vertices.

If we move one vertex from the side with $p$ vertices to the side with $q$ vertices, we lose $q$ edges and gain $p-1$ new edges. Since the number of edges was already maximized, we must have $p-1\le q,$ that is, $p-q\le1.$ Symmetrically, we also have $q-p\le1,$ and so $|p-q|\le1.$

If $n$ is even, then from $p+q=n$ and $|p-q|\le1$ it follows that $p=q=\frac n2,$ and $pq=\frac{n^2}4=\left\lfloor\frac{n^2}4\right\rfloor.$

If $n$ is odd, then $\{p,q\}=\left\{\frac{n-1}2,\frac{n+1}2\right\},$ and $pq=\frac{n^2-1}4=\left\lfloor\frac{n^2}4\right\rfloor.$