This problem came to my mind while working on a related from for a reading I am doing.
Let us say we have $X$ some scheme over a scheme $S$ (where most easily we could take $S$ to be affine). Given $T\rightarrow S$, we get $X_T=X\times_S T$ over $T$ (again we could take $T$ to be affine).
Let us say I knew all the line bundles over $X_T$, is there a good way to translate this into knowing the line bundles of $X$. Clearly, any line bundle of $X$ when base changed to $T$ must be one that we already know. Are there conditions we can give to say that there is only one line bundle (up to isomorphism) that base changes to each line bundle in $X_T$?
My question is vague, so a real answer may not be possible, but I am wondering what tools I should examine to look at this problem.
Thank you for any help or direction.