No. The "why" depends on your definition of von Neumann algebra.
If you define von Neumann algebra the way it is usually used, it is not an intrinsic notion: both the double commutant and the ultraweak operator topology depend on the environment (i.e. $B(H)$). In that case, take a non-type I factor, say a II$_1$, and take an irreducible representation. Then the image will be dense in some $B(H)$, but it cannot be everything (because in a II$_1$ factor the identity is finite, for instance). So the image is not a von Neumann algebra.
The above shows that the usual definition of von Neumann algebra has its caveats. An intrinsic definition can be given: a C$^*$-algebra that admits a Banach pre-dual. More concretely this means that a von Neumann algebra is a C$^*$-algebra that admits an isometric surjective embedding onto the dual of a Banach space.
So in this second case, if $\varphi$ is injective, its image will be a von Neumann algebra. When $\varphi$ is not injective, it is easy to come up with a counterexample: you can take $A=B(H)$ and $\varphi$ the quotient map onto the Calkin algebra, which is not a von Neumann algebra (in an intrinsic way: it is not C$^*$-isomorphic to any von Neumann algebra).