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 Oct28 revised Will XORing any data with random data produce a random result? added 72 characters in body Oct28 comment Will XORing any data with random data produce a random result? I'm a programmer, not a mathematician, so feel free to edit my question to use proper mathematical notation or terminology. Oct28 comment Will XORing any data with random data produce a random result? My gut feeling tells me Yes, all output will be completely random and unpredictable. I'd prefer a proof (logical or mathematical) rather than relying on "feels right". Oct28 asked Will XORing any data with random data produce a random result? Jul15 revised What is the “average time remaining” when guessing a random value? added 74 characters in body Jul15 comment What is the “average time remaining” when guessing a random value? As I said, I don't know much mathematical terminology beyond what is found in Geometry and basic Calculus, so please edit the tags or any wording as needed. Jul15 asked What is the “average time remaining” when guessing a random value? Mar29 comment Is there a hashing algorithm that can be done on paper? @wendy.krieger That still isn't what I am referring to, you are talking about public key cryptography. What I am referring to is how user passwords are stored in a site's database; rather than store the password, a hash of the password is stored, and the password they actually typed in is forgotten by the server side. Later, when you want to validate a user's password, you hash the value they entered, and compare that to the hashed value stored in the database. I think this video explains that way hashing is used: youtube.com/watch?v=8ZtInClXe1Q Mar29 awarded Informed Mar29 comment Is there a hashing algorithm that can be done on paper? @wendy.krieger I edited my question to clarify what I'm looking for, and neither part of your answer really fits what I seek. Mar29 revised Is there a hashing algorithm that can be done on paper? added 26 characters in body Mar29 comment Is there a hashing algorithm that can be done on paper? @JiK That is going to be limited by how much data is contained in the resulting hash. Just for demonstration purposes, two inputs that produce the same hash are fine so long as there are maybe a hundred possible different values they could result in. However, if there are only a handful of possible results, such as the suggested using mod 13 or mod 10, that is not good enough, and would only confuse the student. Mar29 comment Is there a hashing algorithm that can be done on paper? @wendy.krieger That's how it's used for files, however, one can just as easily (and developers do) hash a password to "hide" the original value. For all intents and purposes, the original value is "lost". Mar29 awarded Editor Mar29 revised Is there a hashing algorithm that can be done on paper? Clarify question Mar28 awarded Student Mar28 asked Is there a hashing algorithm that can be done on paper? Mar17 awarded Quorum Feb16 comment Logic puzzle: Which octopus is telling the truth? If you enjoyed this puzzle, may I shamelessly plug the Puzzling proposal in Area51? Aug17 awarded Autobiographer