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I'm Louis Stein, and I enjoy teaching on English as a Second Language.

Internet Resources:

Selection of my teaching materials (answers to student language learners):


Philosophy: I believe in life-long education such as that gained through the research I perform to give great answers on Stack Exchange.

Primary Interests: Cognitive psychology, linguistics, personal and cultural identity, theory of humor, and Education. Other Interests: Ballroom Dancing, Autism and Savant Syndrome (esp Absolute Pitch, which I have no sense of), Philosophy, Theory and History of Math, Theory and History of Science, Writing, Humor, Music, Piano, Singing (esp. Solfege), Education, ADHD, and Psychology.


Philosophy on Dealing with Negativity: Practice for Fame and Fortune by Ignoring Negativity!

Think of negativity as a great, fun opportunity to ready yourself for a life of fame. Famous people have to ignore vast amounts of negativity about them. If they didn't, they would forever be wasting their time apologizing, defending theirselves, or crying foul to people in charge.

Do you find yourself getting worked up over one little comment? Think about it this way: Even if they wanted to, a famous person couldn't read all the bad things about them. They would have to hire an entire, full-time staff of a hundred people to read, get upset, and respond to all the stuff written about them. Start practicing now so when you get famous, you don't have to hire a hundred people to get upset for you.

The key is really to think of negativity as just "part of the game". Like Tetris, The Legend of Zelda, or PAC-MAN. You just step around it. Keep moving ahead. Don't look back at that thing you stepped around. Stop that. Stop lookihg back. Are you looking back? POW you lost the level because you were looking back. Did you learn? Stop looking back at "that thing" you stepped around.


About Me

Taught myself programming in 7th grade from my older brother's math book before I had a computer (1978). I would run the programs on paper to see what they would do. I learned to program for joy from then until the end of college.


Apr
9
revised What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
Update
Apr
8
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
It's not necessarily that simple. I'll update with some references when I have some time.
Apr
8
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
"A" is a concrete object.
Apr
8
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
+1 To your comment above Anupam! Anupam, that is probably the best question you've asked in comments! Bravo and +1 to that question! This entire answer of mine depends on what I meant! So that means you cannot be sure if this is correct or not unless I tell you if I meant "abstract" or "concrete". Excellent! I love it! I think this parallels the original question regarding the intent of what Mr. Fine meant.
Apr
8
awarded  Commentator
Apr
8
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
Anupam, if you make a typo in a comment, you can consider deleting your comment(s) and resubmitting new comments with corrected text. This works well when nobody else has submitted an interim comment.
Apr
8
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
My personal view is that Question Askers, given the free service of an Answerer, should upvote all answers that provide some value, even if it's not the right answer. It's a way of saying, "Thank you for contributing to the process of finding the answer." Similarly, I believe that anyone who answers a question should upvote the question; surely if they spent time answering, it must have some value. Be generous with votes. They are free, abstract tokens of appreciation/value. Let others up/downvote on tighter merit. It's your choice, but I wouldn't downvote on such a technicality.
Apr
7
revised What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
added 55 characters in body
Apr
7
revised What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
added 55 characters in body
Apr
7
answered What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
Apr
7
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
Anupam: Could you please indicate why you are interested in this particular issue, by this particular 19th century writer? You seem very eager and pleased to accept any notion that "Mr. Fine intended to mean" that {A, A, A} contains 3 things, while you seem to disregard any suggestion to the contrary. Why do you have this bias? You don't seem to be interested in any of the theory/math aspects of this question (which is a shame since so much good info has been produced). Why are you interested in what seems to be a conjecture of historical trivia in a field you have no interest in?
Apr
7
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
There's no indication that Mr. Fine defines "thing" to refer to "token". I'm not sure type/token philosophy even existed back then. Even if it did, it would have to be an explicit definition "concrete thing": things are not necessarily concrete nor are they non-abstract. There are "abstract things" like numbers & love. There are "things that don't exist", like Unicorns. The key might be in his paragraphs 2,3, and 4. However, his statement Sum(a+b+c)=Size(a+b+c)=Size(a)+Size(b)+Size(c) might support your claim that he thinks Size({Z,Z,Z})=3. It's not proof though: could have been a mistake.
Apr
7
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
BTW his footnote "By group we mean finite group that is one which cannot be brought into one to one correspondence with any part of itself" is very strong evidence he's talking about (naive) set theory. He's obviously avoiding infinite sets, and based on the history of Set Theory, that may have been for political reasons. There's no reason for him to be contentious at that point in his career, and every reason to play it safe, especially with this book.
Apr
7
awarded  Cleanup
Apr
7
revised What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
rolled back to a previous revision
Apr
7
revised What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
Added Types/Tokens
Apr
7
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
@Mauro, Yeah I saw that union thing and even recall thinking "no that's not union that's addition". In his absurd definition, all "groups/sets" intersection must = ∅. So if Anupam is trying to demonstrate Mr. Fine was confused, then I'm ok with that: "Addition If two or more groups of things be brought together so as to form a single group the numeral symbol of this group is called the sum of the numbers of the separate groups If the sum be s and the numbers of the separate groups a b c etc respectively the relation between them is symbolically expressed by the equation s = a b c+ etc"
Apr
7
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
It is a set. Let me update my answer to include type and token and show you how that applies here. It really does make sense, even with type and token terminology. It'll take a few minutes...
Apr
7
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
Ok what is your proof on that. I gave a lot of time on this answer so please stick with me on this just a bit, ok?
Apr
7
comment What do we mean by the term “Number of things”?
No wait please for everyone's sake.... wait just a bit. not another question this is just about nailed down. Give answerers some time to respond to my answer and your concerns. "Group" in Fine's book is exactly the set of modern maths. You'll go off on another tangent entirely if you take this to another question.