Stochastic calculus is a branch of mathematics that operates on stochastic processes. It allows a consistent theory of integration to be defined for integrals of stochastic processes with respect to stochastic processes. It is used to model systems that behave randomly.

The main flavors of stochastic calculus are the Ito calculus and its variational relative the Malliavin calculus. For technical reasons the Ito integral is the most useful for general classes of processes but the related Stratonovich integral is frequently useful in problem formulation.

The Stratonovich integral can readily be expressed in terms of the Itô integral. The main benefit of the Stratonovich integral is that it obeys the usual chain rule and therefore does not require Ito's lemma. This enables problems to be expressed in a coordinate system invariant form, which is invaluable when developing stochastic calculus on manifolds other than $\mathbb{R}^n$

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