Estimation theory is a branch of statistics and signal processing that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured/empirical data that has a random component. The parameters describe an underlying physical setting in such a way that their value affects the distribution of the measured data. An estimator attempts to approximate the unknown parameters using the measurements.

Source: Wikipedia; content written by Colin M.L. Burnett and others, used under the CC-By-SA 3.0 license.

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