If $a$ and $b$ are integers, $a$ divides $b$ if $b=ca$ for some integer $c$. This is denoted $a\mid b$. It is usually studied in introductory courses in number theory, so add (elementary-number-theory) tag, if appropriate.
A common notation used for the phrase "$a$ divides $b$" is $a|b$. It is also common to negate the notation by adding a slash like this: "$c$ does not divide $d$" written as $c\nmid d$. Note that the order is important: for example, $2|4$ but "$4\nmid 2$".
This notion can be generalized to any ring. The definition is the same: For two elements $a$ and $b$ of a commutative ring $R$, $a$ divides $b$ if $ac=b$ for some $c$ in $R$.
Divisibility in commutative rings corresponds exactly to containment the poset of principal ideals. That is, $a$ divides $b$ if and only if $aR\subseteq bR$. For commutative rings like principal ideal rings, this means that divisibility mirrors exactly the poset of all ideals of the ring.