Convex analysis is the study of properties of convex sets and convex functions.

Formally, a set $S$ is convex if, for all $x, y \in S$ and $t \in [0,1]$, $tx + (1-t)y \in S$. Intuitively, this says that for any two points in $S$, the line segment connecting those points is also in $S$.

Formally, a function $f: S \to \mathbb{R}$ defined on a convex set $S$ is convex, if for all $x,y \in S$ and $t \in [0,1]$, $f(tx + (1-t)y) \leq t f(x) + (1-t) f(y)$. Intuitively, this says that, for any two points on the graph of $f$, the line segment connecting those points lies above the graph of $f$.

The classic reference in this subject is R.T. Rockafellar, Convex Analysis.

Some of the more important results in convex analysis include Carathéodory's Theorem, Jensen's Inequality, Minkowski's Theorem, and the supporting hyperplane theorem.

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