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The way I think about quotient spaces (or quotient algebraic structures in general) is as an identification of things which differ by some subspace/subgroup/subring/... of the original structure.

So for example, with $\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z}$, we identify integers which differ by a multiple of $n$. With $\mathbb{R}^2/\langle (1,1) \rangle$ we identify things which lie on the same line lying at $45^{\circ}$ to the (positive) horizontal, i.e. we identify vectors which differ by some scalar multiple of the vector $(1,1)$.

More generally, if $V$ is a vector space and $U \le V$ is a subspace then you can think of $V/U$ as the space you get when you identify two elements $v, v' \in V$ if $v'=v+u$ for some $u \in U$. What it 'looks like' is what you get when you contract $U$ to a point and extend linearly to the rest of the space.

For example, contracting $\langle (1,1) \rangle$ to a point in $\mathbb{R}^2$ leaves you with $\langle (1,-1) \rangle$, since the 'points' in $\mathbb{R}^2/\langle (1,1) \rangle$ can be thought of as precisely the lines in $\mathbb{R}^2$ with gradient $1$.

I hope this wasn't too waffly.