11
votes
6answers
5k views

Proving Pascal's Rule : ${{n} \choose {r}}={{n-1} \choose {r-1}}+{{n-1} \choose r}$ when $1\leq r\leq n$

I'm trying to prove that ${n \choose r}$ is equal to ${{n-1} \choose {r-1}}+{{n-1} \choose r}$ when $1\leq r\leq n$. I suppose I could use the counting rules in probability, perhaps combination= ...
5
votes
3answers
205 views

Evaluating Combination Sum $\sum{n+k\choose 2k} 2^{n-k}$

Evaluate $$\sum_{k=0}^n{n+k\choose 2k} 2^{n-k}$$ So im not really sure how to begin with this. I would imagine we start with dividing out $2^{n}$, but not really sure much past that
45
votes
5answers
5k views

Completion of rational numbers via Cauchy sequences

Can anyone recommend a good self-contained reference for completion of rationals to get reals using Cauchy sequences?
41
votes
3answers
2k views

Show that $\int_{0}^{\pi/2}\frac {\log^2\sin x\log^2\cos x}{\cos x\sin x}\mathrm{d}x=\frac14\left( 2\zeta (5)-\zeta(2)\zeta (3)\right)$

Show that : $$ \int_{0}^{\Large\frac\pi2} {\ln^{2}\left(\vphantom{\large A}\cos\left(x\right)\right) \ln^{2}\left(\vphantom{\large A}\sin\left(x\right)\right) \over ...
21
votes
2answers
4k views

Prove that $\prod_{k=1}^{n-1}\sin\frac{k \pi}{n} = \frac{n}{2^{n-1}}$

Using n_th root of unity $$\Large\left(e^{\frac{2ki\pi}{n}}\right)^{n} = 1$$ Prove that $$\prod_{k=1}^{n-1}\sin\frac{k \pi}{n} = \frac{n}{2^{n-1}}$$
32
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the limit of $n \sin (2 \pi \cdot e \cdot n!)$ as $n$ goes to infinity?

I tried and got this $$e=\sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{1}{k!}=\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}$$ $$n!\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}=\frac{n!}{0!}+\frac{n!}{1!}+\cdots+\frac{n!}{n!}=m$$ where $m$ is an ...
37
votes
4answers
5k views

Probability for the length of the longest run in $n$ Bernoulli trials

Suppose a biased coin (probability of head being $p$) was flipped $n$ times. I would like to find the probability that the length of the longest run of heads, say $\ell_n$, exceeds a given number $m$, ...
11
votes
7answers
1k views

A linear operator commuting with all such operators is a scalar multiple of the identity.

The question is from Axler's "Linear Algebra Done Right", which I'm using for self-study. We are given a linear operator $T$ over a finite dimensional vector space $V$. We have to show that $T$ is a ...
8
votes
4answers
4k views

Fibonacci modular results

Can any one give a generalization of the following properties in a single proof? I have checked the results, which I have given below by trial and error method. I am looking for a general proof, which ...
79
votes
8answers
4k views

Self-Contained Proof that $\sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac1{n^p}$ Converges for $p > 1$

To prove the convergence of $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac1{n^p}$$ for $p > 1$, one typically appeals to either the Integral Test or the Cauchy Condensation Test. I am wondering if there is a ...
66
votes
5answers
6k views

Why is $1^{\infty}$ considered to be an indeterminate form

From Wikipedia: In calculus and other branches of mathematical analysis, an indeterminate form is an algebraic expression obtained in the context of limits. Limits involving algebraic operations are ...
63
votes
10answers
3k views

Why 1 is not considered to be a prime number?

Why $1$ is not considered to be a prime number? Or why definition of prime numbers is given for integers greater than $1$?
21
votes
3answers
1k views

No continuous function switches $\mathbb{Q}$ and the irrationals

Is there a way to prove the following result using connectedness? Result: Let $J=\mathbb{R} \setminus \mathbb{Q}$ denote the set of irrational numbers. There is no continuous map $f: \mathbb{R} ...
34
votes
8answers
2k views

Is $\lim\limits_{k\to\infty}\sum\limits_{n=k+1}^{2k}{\frac{1}{n}} = 0$?

Is it the case that $$\lim\limits_{k\to\infty}\sum\limits_{n=k+1}^{2k}{\frac{1}{n}} = 0$$ That is, does the "second half" of the harmonic series go to zero?
29
votes
7answers
4k views

Is $0$ a natural number?

Is there a consensus in the mathematical community, or some accepted authority, to determine whether zero should be classified as a natural number? It seems as though formerly $0$ was considered in ...
12
votes
2answers
2k views

Prove convergence of the sequence $(z_1+z_2+\cdots + z_n)/n$ of Cesaro means

Prove that if $\lim_{n \to \infty}z_{n}=A$ then: $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\frac{z_{1}+z_{2}+\cdots + z_{n}}{n}=A$$ I was thinking spliting it in: ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

Proof that an integral domain that is a finite-dimensional $F$-vector space is in fact a field

I'm reading Galois Theory by Steven H. Weintraub (second edition), and finding that I'm at least somewhat short on the prerequisites. However the following proof looks wrong to me - am I ...
6
votes
1answer
989 views

Inequality involving $\limsup$ and $\liminf$

This may have been asked before, however I was unable to find any duplicate. This comes from pg. 52 of "Mathematical Analysis: An Introduction" by Browder. Problem 14: If $(a_n)$ is a sequence in ...
26
votes
6answers
9k views

What is a good book to study linear algebra?

I'm looking for a book to learn Algebra. The programme is the following. The units marked with a $\star$ are the ones I'm most interested in (in the sense I know nothing about) and those with a ...
23
votes
4answers
777 views

Conjugate subgroup strictly contained in the initial subgroup?

Probably a very stupid question: Let $G$ be a group, $H\subset G$ a subgroup, $a\in G$ an element. Is it possible that $aHa^{-1} \subset H$, but $aHa^{-1} \neq H$? If $H$ has finite index or finite ...
15
votes
7answers
4k views

Computing the integral of $\log(\sin x)$ [closed]

How to compute the following integral $$\int\log(\sin x)~dx~?$$
30
votes
4answers
3k views

Can there be two distinct, continuous functions that are equal at all rationals?

Akhil showed that the Cardinality of set of real continuous functions is the same as the continuum, using as a step the observation that continuous functions that agree at rational points must agree ...
15
votes
7answers
7k views

Making Change for a Dollar (and other number partitioning problems)

I was trying to solve a problem similar to the "how many ways are there to make change for a dollar" problem. I ran across a site that said I could use a generating function similar to the one quoted ...
15
votes
1answer
1k views

About a paper of Zermelo

This about the famous article Zermelo, E., Beweis, daß jede Menge wohlgeordnet werden kann, Math. Ann. 59 (4), 514–516 (1904), available here. Edit: Springer link to the ...
12
votes
4answers
2k views

Elementary central binomial coefficient estimates

How to prove that $\quad\displaystyle\frac{4^{n}}{\sqrt{4n}}<\binom{2n}{n}<\frac{4^{n}}{\sqrt{3n+1}}\quad$ for all $n$ > 1 ? Does anyone know any better elementary estimates?
2
votes
3answers
108 views

Prove $\sum_{i=0}^n\binom{i+k-1}{k-1}=\binom{n+k}{k}$

Could someone explain to me why the identity $$ \sum_{i=0}^n\binom{i+k-1}{k-1}=\binom{n+k}{k} $$ holds?
0
votes
2answers
2k views

Determine and classify all singular points

Determine and find residues for all singular points $z\in \mathbb{C}$ for (i) $\frac{1}{z\sin(2z)}$ (ii) $\frac{1}{1-e^{-z}}$ Note: I have worked out (i), but (ii) seems still not easy.
296
votes
12answers
85k views

Does Pi contain all possible number combinations?

I came across the following image, which states: $\pi$ Pi Pi is an infinite, nonrepeating (sic) decimal - meaning that every possible number combination exists somewhere in pi. Converted ...
48
votes
17answers
38k views

Where to start learning Linear Algebra? [closed]

I'm starting a very long quest to learn about math, so that I can program games. I'm mostly a corporate developer, and it's somewhat boring and non exciting. When I began my career, I chose it because ...
34
votes
16answers
23k views

Best book for topology?

I am a graduate student of math right now but I was not able to get a topology subject in my undergrad... I just would like to know if you guys know the best one..
43
votes
17answers
4k views

In classical logic, why is $(p\Rightarrow q)$ True if both $p$ and $q$ are False?

I am studying entailment in classical first-order logic. The Truth Table we have been presented with for the statement $(p \Rightarrow q)\;$ (a.k.a. '$p$ implies $q$') is: ...
49
votes
1answer
2k views

Is Lagrange's theorem the most basic result in finite group theory?

Motivated by this question, can one prove that the order of an element in a finite group divides the order of the group without using Lagrange's theorem? (Or, equivalently, that the order of the group ...
26
votes
5answers
7k views

Is $\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{2}, \sqrt{3}) = \mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{3})$?

Is $\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{2}, \sqrt{3}) = \mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{3})$ ? $$\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{2},\sqrt{3})=\{a+b\sqrt{2}+c\sqrt{3}+d\sqrt{6} \mid a,b,c,d\in\mathbf{Q}\}$$ ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Motivation behind the definition of GCD and LCM

According to me, I can find the GCD of two integers (say $a$ and $b$) by finding all the common factors of them, and then finding the maximum of all these common factors. This also justifies the ...
7
votes
2answers
6k views

Reed Solomon Polynomial Generator

I am developing a sample program to generate a 2D Barcode. And i am using reed solomon error correction code. By Going through this article i am developing the program. But i couldn't understand how ...
17
votes
3answers
3k views

Is there a name for function with the exponential property $f(x+y)=f(x) \cdot f(y)$?

I was wondering if there is a name for a function that satisfies the conditions $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ and $f(x+y)=f(x) \cdot f(y)$? Thanks and regards!
11
votes
1answer
2k views

Finite Sum of Power?

Sorry for the remedial math but: Can someone tell me how to get a closed form for $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^x$$ For $x = 1$, it's just the classic $n(n+1)/2$. What is it for $x > 1$?
13
votes
3answers
1k views

The cartesian product $\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$ is countable

I'm examining a proof I have read that claims to show that the Cartesian product $\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$ is countable, and as part of this proof, I am looking to show that the given map is ...
5
votes
2answers
679 views

Divisibility criteria for $7,11,13,17,19$

A number is divisible by $2$ if it ends in $0,2,4,6,8$. It is divisible by $3$ if sum of ciphers is divisible by $3$. It is divisible by $5$ if it ends $0$ or $5$. These are simple criteria for ...
8
votes
3answers
814 views

Number of permutations of $n$ where no number $i$ is in position $i$

I am trying to figure out how many permutations exist in a set where none of the numbers equal their own position in the set; for example, $3,1,5,2,4$ is an acceptable permutation where $3,1,2,4,5$ is ...
7
votes
10answers
3k views

How to prove this binomial identity $\sum_{r=0}^n {r {n \choose r}} = n2^{n-1}$?

I am trying to prove this binomial identity $\sum_{r=0}^n {r {n \choose r}} = n2^{n-1}$ but am not able to think something except induction,which is of-course not necessary (I think) here, so I am ...
1
vote
3answers
740 views

Solutions to $ax^2 + by^2 = cz^2$

The integer solutions to the equation $x^2 + y^2 = z^2$ are very well studied. I'm wondering if there's any literature about the integer solutions to the equation $ax^2 + by^2 = cz^2$ where a,b,c are ...
16
votes
4answers
10k views

Discontinuous derivative.

Could someone give an example of a ‘very’ discontinuous derivative? I myself can only come up with examples where the derivative is discontinuous at only one point. I am assuming the function is ...
26
votes
2answers
716 views

Generalized Euler sum $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{H_n}{n^q}$

I found the following formula $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{H_n}{n^q}= \left(1+\frac{q}{2} \right)\zeta(q+1)-\frac{1}{2}\sum_{k=1}^{q-2}\zeta(k+1)\zeta(q-k)$$ and it is cited that Euler proved the ...
19
votes
2answers
4k views

Will moving differentiation from inside, to outside an integral, change the result?

I'm interested in the potential of such a technique. I got the idea from Moron's answer to this question, which uses the technique of differentiation under the integral. Now, I'd like to consider ...
28
votes
4answers
22k views

Union of two vector subspaces not a subspace?

I'm having a difficult time understanding this statement. Can someone please explain with a concrete example?
22
votes
9answers
6k views

Is there possibly a largest prime number?

Prime numbers are numbers with no factors other than one and itself. Factors of a number are always lower or equal to than a given number; so, the larger the number is, the larger the pool of ...
14
votes
4answers
7k views

Intuition behind using complementary CDF to compute expectation for nonnegative random variables

I've read the proof for why $\int_0^\infty P(X >x)dx=E[X]$ for nonnegative random variables (located here) and understand its mechanics, but I'm having trouble understanding the intuition behind ...
20
votes
2answers
5k views

Number of monic irreducible polynomials of degree $p$ over finite fields

Suppose $F$ is a field s.t $\left|F\right|=q$. Take $p$ to be some prime. How many monic irreducible polynomials of degree $p$ can exist over $F$? Thanks!
16
votes
3answers
11k views

Combinatorial proof of summation of $\sum_{k = 0}^n {n \choose k}^2= {2n \choose n}$

Can you guys help me prove this? There is a way of proving this logically but I was hoping to find a more "mathematical" proof, if possible. $$\displaystyle \sum_{k = 0}^n {n \choose k}^2= {2n ...

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