37
votes
16answers
3k views

In classical logic, why is$ (p\Rightarrow q)$ True if both p and q are False?

I am studying entailment in classical first-order logic. The Truth Table we have been presented with for the statement $(p \Rightarrow q)\;$ (a.k.a. '$p$ implies $q$') is: ...
29
votes
7answers
4k views

Taking Seats on a Plane

This is a neat little problem that I was discussing today with my lab group out at lunch. Not particularly difficult but interesting implications nonetheless Imagine there are a 100 people in line to ...
15
votes
1answer
879 views

About a paper of Zermelo

This about the famous article Zermelo, E., Beweis, daß jede Menge wohlgeordnet werden kann, Math. Ann. 59 (4), 514–516 (1904), available here. Edit: Springer link to the ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Finite Sum of Power?

Sorry for the remedial math but: Can someone tell me how to get a closed form for $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^x$$ For $x = 1$, it's just the classic $n(n+1)/2$. What is it for $x > 1$?
6
votes
8answers
556 views

How to show that $\lim_{n \to +\infty} n^{\frac{1}{n}} = 1$?

I've spent the better part of this day trying to show from first principles that this sequence tends to 1. Could anyone give me an idea of how I can approach this problem? $$ \lim_{n \to +\infty} ...
3
votes
2answers
766 views

Units and Nilpotents

If $ua = au$, where $u$ is a unit and $a$ is a nilpotent, show that $u+a$ is a unit. I've been working on this problem for an hour that I tried to construct an element $x \in R$ such that $x(u+a) ...
27
votes
14answers
28k views

In a family with two children, what are the chances, if one of the children is a girl, that both children are girls?

In a family with two children, what are the chances, if one of the children is a girl, that both children are girls? I just dipped into a book, The Drunkard's Walk - How Randomness Rules Our Lives, ...
27
votes
8answers
3k views

How can you prove that the square root of two is irrational?

I have read a few proofs that $\sqrt{2}$ is irrational. I have never, however, been able to really grasp what they were talking about. Is there a simplified proof that $\sqrt{2}$ is irrational?
25
votes
1answer
851 views

How does $ \sum_{p<x} p^{-s} $ grow asymptotically for $ \text{Re}(s) < 1 $?

Note the $ p < x $ in the sum stands for all primes less than $ x $. I know that for $ s=1 $, $$ \sum_{p<x} \frac{1}{p} \sim \ln \ln x , $$ and for $ \mathrm{Re}(s) > 1 $, the partial sums ...
16
votes
6answers
2k views

Comparing $\pi^{e}$ and $e^{\pi}$

How can I calculate without calculator or something like this the values of $\pi^{e}$ and $e^{\pi}$ in order to compare them ?
8
votes
4answers
3k views

Fibonacci modular results

Can any one give a generalization of the following properties in a single proof? I have checked the results, which I have given below by trial and error method. I am looking for a general proof, which ...
24
votes
8answers
2k views

Is $\lim\limits_{k\to\infty}\sum\limits_{n=k+1}^{2k}{\frac{1}{n}} = 0$?

Is $\lim\limits_{k\to\infty}\sum\limits_{n=k+1}^{2k}{\frac{1}{n}} = 0$ I.e - does the second half of the harmonic series go to zero? I know that for a finite number of terms the limit of the sum is ...
14
votes
3answers
6k views

Proof that a Combination is an integer

From its definition a combination $(^n_k)$, is the number of distinct subsets of size k from a set of n elements. This is clearly an integer, however I was curious as to why the equation ...
11
votes
1answer
638 views

Approximating a $\sigma$-algebra by a generating algebra

Theorem. Let $(X,\mathcal B,\mu)$ a finite measure space, where $\mu$ is a positive measure. Let $\mathcal A\subset \mathcal B$ an algebra generating $\cal B$. Then for all $B\in\cal B$ and ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Proof that an integral domain that is a finite-dimensional $F$-vector space is in fact a field

I'm reading Galois Theory by Steven H. Weintraub (second edition), and finding that I'm at least somewhat short on the prerequisites. However the following proof looks wrong to me - am I ...
8
votes
3answers
610 views

Number of permutations where n ≠ position n

I am trying to figure out how many permutations exist in a set where none of the numbers equal their own position in the set; for example, 3,1,5,2,4 is an acceptable permutation where 3,1,2,4,5 is not ...
5
votes
1answer
159 views

Discrete logarithm tables for the fields $\Bbb{F}_8$ and $\Bbb{F}_{16}$.

The smallest non-trivial finite field of characteristic two is $$ \Bbb{F}_4=\{0,1,\beta,\beta+1=\beta^2\}, $$ where $\beta$ and $\beta+1$ are primitive cubic roots of unity, and zeros of the ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Cartesian Product of Two Countable Sets is Countable

How can I prove that the Cartesian product of two countable sets is also countable?
-1
votes
3answers
407 views

Solution of 3 equations in 3 unknowns [closed]

Find the value of $c$ which makes it possible to solve: $$u+v+2w=2,$$ $$2u+3v-w=5,$$ $$3u+4v+w=c$$
52
votes
3answers
5k views

$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} e^{-x^2} dx$ with complex analysis

Inspired by this recently closed question, I'm curious whether there's a way to do the Gaussian integral using techniques in complex analysis such as contour integrals. I am aware of the calculation ...
40
votes
15answers
10k views

What is the most elegant proof of the Pythagorean theorem?

The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the most popular to prove by mathematicians, and there are many proofs available (including one from James Garfield). What's the most elegant proof? My favorite ...
23
votes
1answer
1k views

Classification of prime ideals of $\mathbb{Z}[X]$

Let $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ be the ring of polynomials in one variable. My question: Is every prime ideal of $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ one of following types? If yes, how would you prove this? (1) ($0$) (2) ...
15
votes
6answers
3k views

Computing the integral of $\log(\sin x)$

How to compute the following integral $$\int\log(\sin x)~dx~?$$
16
votes
3answers
2k views

The $\sigma$-algebra of subsets of $X$ generated by a set $\mathcal{A}$ is the smallest sigma algebra including $\mathcal{A}$

I am struggling to understand why it should be that the $\sigma$-algebra of subsets of $X$ generated by $\mathcal{A}$ should be the smallest $\sigma$-algebra of subsets of $X$ including $\mathcal{A}$. ...
14
votes
4answers
2k views

Motivation behind standard deviation?

Let's take the numbers 0-10. Their mean is 5, and the individual deviations from 5 are -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 And so the average (magnitude of) ...
10
votes
3answers
976 views

Motivation behind the definition of GCD and LCM

According to me, I can find the GCD of two integers (say $a$ and $b$) by finding all the common factors of them, and then finding the maximum of all these common factors. This also justifies the ...
11
votes
5answers
3k views

Normal subgroup of prime index

Generalizing the case $p=2$ we would like to know if the statement below is true. Let $p$ the smallest prime dividing the order of $G$. If $H$ is a subgroup of $G$ with index $p$ then $H$ is normal. ...
10
votes
7answers
4k views

Making Change for a Dollar (and other number partitioning problems)

I was trying to solve a problem similar to the "how many ways are there to make change for a dollar" problem. I ran across a site that said I could use a generating function similar to the one quoted ...
15
votes
4answers
8k views

Simple explanation and examples of the Miller-Rabin Primality Test

Coming from an understanding of Fermat's primality test, I'm looking for a clear explanation of the Miller-Rabin primality test. Specifically: I understand that for some reason, having non-trivial ...
7
votes
5answers
4k views

Proving Pascal's Rule : ${{n} \choose {r}}={{n-1} \choose {r-1}}+{{n-1} \choose r}$ when $1\leq r\leq n$

I'm trying to prove that ${n \choose r}$ is equal to ${{n-1} \choose {r-1}}+{{n-1} \choose r}$ when $1\leq r\leq n$. I suppose I could use the counting rules in probability, perhaps combination= ...
4
votes
3answers
585 views

definite integral calculation with 0 pole and

$$\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin(2\pi x)}{x(x^{2}+3)}$$ I look at $\frac{e^{2\pi i z}}{z^{3}+3z}$ , also calculate the residues, but they don't get me the right answer. ( I use that for this case, it holds ...
7
votes
2answers
989 views

Prove convergence of the sequence $(z_1+z_2+\cdots + z_n)/n$ of Cesaro means

Prove that if $\lim_{n \to \infty}z_{n}=A$ then: $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\frac{z_{1}+z_{2}+\cdots + z_{n}}{n}=A$$ I was thinking spliting it in: ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

$|G|>2$ implies $G$ has non trivial automorphism

Well, this is an exercise problem from Herstein which sounds difficult: How does one prove that if $|G|>2$, then $G$ has non-trivial automorphism? The only thing, i know which connects a group ...
15
votes
5answers
975 views

Prove: $\int_0^1 \frac{\ln x }{x-1} d x=\sum_1^\infty \frac{1}{n^2}$

I'd like your help with proving that $$\int_0^1 \frac{\ln x }{x-1}d x=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^2}.$$ I tried to use Fourier series, or to use a power series and integrate it twice but it didn't ...
15
votes
6answers
9k views

Prove that if $\gcd( a, b ) = 1$ then $\gcd( ac, b ) = \gcd( c, b ) $

I know it might be too easy for you guys here. I'm practicing some problems in the textbook, but this one really drove me crazy. From $\gcd( a, b ) = 1$, I have $ax + by = 1$, where should I go from ...
23
votes
4answers
14k views

Union of two vector subspaces not a subspace?

I'm having a difficult time understanding this statement. Can someone please explain with a concrete example?
15
votes
5answers
3k views

How do I prove that $x^p-x+a$ is irreducible in a field with $p$ elements when $a\neq 0$?

How do I prove that $x^p-x+a$ is irreducible in a field with $p$ elements when $a\neq 0$? Right now I'm able to prove that it has no roots and that it is separable, but I have not a clue as to ...
4
votes
3answers
994 views

Characterizing units in polynomial rings $R[X]$

I am trying to prove a result, for which I have got one part, but I am not able to get the converse part. Theorem. Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$. Then $f(X)=a_{0}+a_{1}X+a_{2}X^{2} + \cdots ...
11
votes
4answers
4k views

Intuition behind using complementary CDF to compute expectation for nonnegative random variables

I've read the proof for why $\int_0^\infty P(X >x)dx=E[X]$ for nonnegative random variables (located here) and understand its mechanics, but I'm having trouble understanding the intuition behind ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

I have a problem understanding the proof of Rencontres numbers (Derangements)

I understand the whole concept of Rencontres numbers but I can't understand how to prove this equation $$D_{n,0}=\left[\frac{n!}{e}\right]$$ where $[\cdot]$ denotes the rounding function (i.e., ...
8
votes
1answer
847 views

In how many ways can we colour $n$ baskets with $r$ colours?

In how many ways can we colour $n$ baskets using up to $r$ colours such that no two consecutive baskets have the same colour and the first and the last baskets also have different colours? For ...
12
votes
3answers
1k views

Upper and Lower Bounds of $\emptyset$

From some reading, I've noticed that $\sup(\emptyset)=\min(S)$, but $\inf(\emptyset)=\max(S)$, given that $\min(S)$ and $\max(S)$ exist, where $S$ is the universe in which one is working. Is there ...
11
votes
8answers
1k views

Showing that an equation holds true with a Fibonacci sequence: $F_{n+m} = F_{n-1}F_m + F_n F_{m+1}$

Question: Let $F_n$ the sequence of Fibonacci numbers, given by $F_0 = 0, F_1 = 1$ and $F_n = F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}$ for $n \geq 2$. Show for $n, m \in \mathbb{N}$: $$F_{n+m} = F_{n-1}F_m + F_n F_{m+1}$$ ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Continuity of the metric function

Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space. How to prove that for any closed $A$ a function $d(x,A)$ is continuous - I know that it is even Lipschitz continuous, but I have a problem with the proof: $$ |d(x,a) - ...
11
votes
4answers
1k views

Algebraic Proof that $\sum\limits_{i=0}^n \binom{n}{i}=2^n$

I'm well aware of the combinatorial variant of the proof, i.e. noting that each formula is a different representation for the number of subsets of a set of $n$ elements. I'm curious if there's a ...
11
votes
1answer
784 views

$\operatorname{Aut}(V)$ is isomorphic to $S_3$

I'm currently working my way through Harvard's online abstract algebra lectures (if you're interested, you can find them here). The lectures come complete with notes and homework problems. Of ...
10
votes
4answers
523 views

Proving $1^3+ 2^3 + \cdots + n^3 = \left(\frac{n(n+1)}{2}\right)^2$ using induction

How can I prove that $$1^3+ 2^3 + \cdots + n^3 = \left(\frac{n(n+1)}{2}\right)^2$$ for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$? I am looking for a proof using mathematical induction. Thanks
0
votes
3answers
5k views

The product of n consecutive integers is divisible by n! (without using the properties of binomial coefficients)

How can we prove, without using the properties of binomial coefficients, the product of n consecutive integers is divisible by n factorial?
56
votes
9answers
8k views

Is infinity a number?

Is infinity a number? Why or why not? Some commentary: I've found that this is an incredibly simple question to ask — where I grew up, it was a popular argument starter in elementary school ...
30
votes
7answers
9k views

How can I understand and prove the “sum and difference formulas” in trigonometry? (cos(a ± b) = …, etc.)?

The "sum and difference" formulas often come in handy, but it's not immediately obvious that they would be true. \begin{align} \sin(\alpha \pm \beta) &= \sin \alpha \cos \beta \pm \cos \alpha ...

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