31
votes
5answers
11k views

Is $\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{2}, \sqrt{3}) = \mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{3})$?

Is $\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{2}, \sqrt{3}) = \mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{3})$ ? $$\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{2},\sqrt{3})=\{a+b\sqrt{2}+c\sqrt{3}+d\sqrt{6} \mid a,b,c,d\in\mathbf{Q}\}$$ ...
22
votes
3answers
1k views

No continuous function switches $\mathbb{Q}$ and the irrationals

Is there a way to prove the following result using connectedness? Result: Let $J=\mathbb{R} \setminus \mathbb{Q}$ denote the set of irrational numbers. There is no continuous map $f: \mathbb{R} ...
20
votes
7answers
7k views

Computing the integral of $\log(\sin x)$

How to compute the following integral? $$\int\log(\sin x)\,dx$$ Motivation: Since $\log(\sin x)'=\cot x$, the antiderivative $\int\log(\sin x)\,dx$ has the nice property $F''(x)=\cot x$. Can we ...
34
votes
4answers
4k views

Can there be two distinct, continuous functions that are equal at all rationals?

Akhil showed that the Cardinality of set of real continuous functions is the same as the continuum, using as a step the observation that continuous functions that agree at rational points must agree ...
13
votes
7answers
1k views

Determinant of a specially structured matrix

I have the following $n\times n$ matrix: $$A=\begin{bmatrix}a&b&\cdots&b\\b&a&\cdots&b\\\vdots& &\ddots&\vdots\\b&\cdots&b&a\end{bmatrix}$$ where $0 ...
9
votes
7answers
3k views

Comaximal ideals in a commutative ring

Let $R$ be a commutative ring and $I_1, \dots, I_n$ pairwise comaximal ideals in $R$, i.e., $I_i + I_j = R$ for $i \neq j$. Why are the ideals $I_1^{n_1}, ... , I_r^{n_r}$ (for any $n_1,...,n_r ...
4
votes
2answers
241 views

What are BesselJ functions?

I solved an integration on mathematica which gives BesselJ functions and some other terms. I explored mathematica help and google but could not understand the difference between different types of ...
90
votes
7answers
9k views

Why is $1^{\infty}$ considered to be an indeterminate form

From Wikipedia: In calculus and other branches of mathematical analysis, an indeterminate form is an algebraic expression obtained in the context of limits. Limits involving algebraic operations are ...
62
votes
12answers
22k views

Any open subset of $\Bbb R$ is a at most countable union of disjoint open intervals. [Collecting Proofs]

This question has probably been asked. However, I am not interested in just getting the answer to it. Rather, I am interested in collecting as many different proofs of it which are as diverse as ...
41
votes
1answer
4k views

Classification of prime ideals of $\mathbb{Z}[X]$

Let $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ be the ring of polynomials in one variable. My question: Is every prime ideal of $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ one of following types? If yes, how would you prove this? $(0)$ $(f(X))$, where ...
53
votes
5answers
9k views

Evaluate the integral: $\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} \mathrm dx$

Compute $$\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} \mathrm dx$$
92
votes
10answers
5k views

What Does it Really Mean to Have Different Kinds of Infinities?

Can someone explain to me how there can be different kinds of infinities? I was reading "The man who loved only numbers" by Paul Hoffman and came across the concept of countable and uncountable ...
32
votes
7answers
7k views

How do I prove that $x^p-x+a$ is irreducible in a field with $p$ elements when $a\neq 0$?

How do I prove that $x^p-x+a$ is irreducible in a field with $p$ elements when $a\neq 0$? Right now I'm able to prove that it has no roots and that it is separable, but I have not a clue as to ...
40
votes
9answers
6k views

Where is the flaw in this “proof” that 1=2? (Derivative of repeated addition)

Consider the following: $1 = 1^2$ $2 + 2 = 2^2$ $3 + 3 + 3 = 3^2$ Therefore, $\underbrace{x + x + x + \ldots + x}_{x \textrm{ times}}= x^2$ Take the derivative of lhs and rhs and we get: ...
65
votes
11answers
7k views

Why 1 is not considered to be a prime number?

Why $1$ is not considered to be a prime number? Or why definition of prime numbers is given for integers greater than $1$?
56
votes
1answer
3k views

Is Lagrange's theorem the most basic result in finite group theory?

Motivated by this question, can one prove that the order of an element in a finite group divides the order of the group without using Lagrange's theorem? (Or, equivalently, that the order of the group ...
23
votes
6answers
2k views

Simpler way to compute a definite integral without resorting to partial fractions?

I found the method of partial fractions very laborious to solve this definite integral : $$\int_0^\infty \frac{\sqrt[3]{x}}{1 + x^2}\,dx$$ Is there a simpler way to do this ?
5
votes
1answer
671 views

A few improper integral

$$\displaystyle \begin{align*} & \int_{0}^{+\infty }{\frac{\text{d}x}{1+{{x}^{n}}}} \\ & \int_{-\infty }^{+\infty }{\frac{{{x}^{2m}}}{1+{{x}^{2n}}}\text{d}x} \\ & \int_{0}^{+\infty ...
10
votes
10answers
3k views

How to prove this binomial identity $\sum_{r=0}^n {r {n \choose r}} = n2^{n-1}$?

I am trying to prove this binomial identity $\sum_{r=0}^n {r {n \choose r}} = n2^{n-1}$ but am not able to think something except induction,which is of-course not necessary (I think) here, so I am ...
49
votes
2answers
15k views

$L^p$ and $L^q$ space inclusion

Let $(X, \mathcal B, m)$ be a measure space. For $1 \leq p < q \leq \infty$, under what condition is it true that $L^q(X, \mathcal B, m) \subset L^p(X, \mathcal B, m)$ and what is a counterexample ...
50
votes
2answers
3k views

Convergence of $\sqrt{n}x_{n}$ where $x_{n+1} = \sin(x_{n})$

Consider the sequence defined as $x_1 = 1$ $x_{n+1} = \sin x_n$ I think I was able to show that the sequence $\sqrt{n} x_{n}$ converges to $\sqrt{3}$ by a tedious elementary method which I wasn't ...
71
votes
10answers
8k views

Proof that $C\exp(x)$ is the only set of functions for which $f(x) = f'(x)$

I was wondering the following. And I probably know the answer already: NO. Is there another number with similar properties as $e$? So that the derivative of $\exp(x)$ is the same as the function ...
40
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the limit of $n \sin (2 \pi \cdot e \cdot n!)$ as $n$ goes to infinity?

I tried and got this $$e=\sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{1}{k!}=\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}$$ $$n!\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}=\frac{n!}{0!}+\frac{n!}{1!}+\cdots+\frac{n!}{n!}=m$$ where $m$ is an ...
56
votes
3answers
3k views

“Closed” form for $\sum \frac{1}{n^n}$

Earlier today, I was talking with my friend about some "cool" infinite series and the value they converge to like the Basel problem, Madhava-Leibniz formula for $\pi/4, \log 2$ and similar alternating ...
18
votes
7answers
7k views

How to prove and interpret $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq \operatorname{min}(\operatorname{rank}(A), \operatorname{rank}(B))$?

Let $A$ and $B$ be two matrices which can be multiplied. Then $$\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq \operatorname{min}(\operatorname{rank}(A), \operatorname{rank}(B)).$$ I proved ...
30
votes
12answers
4k views

$\lim\limits_{n \to{+}\infty}{\sqrt[n]{n!}}$ is infinite

How do I prove that $ \displaystyle\lim_{n \to{+}\infty}{\sqrt[n]{n!}}$ is infinite?
19
votes
6answers
8k views

Normal subgroup of prime index

Generalizing the case $p=2$ we would like to know if the statement below is true. Let $p$ the smallest prime dividing the order of $G$. If $H$ is a subgroup of $G$ with index $p$ then $H$ is normal. ...
16
votes
1answer
12k views

If $G/Z(G)$ is cyclic, then $G$ is abelian

Continuing my work through Dummit & Foote's "Abstract Algebra", 3.1.36 asks the following (which is exactly the same as exercise 5 in this related MSE answer): Prove that if $G/Z(G)$ is ...
4
votes
8answers
848 views

How to compute the formula $\sum \limits_{r=1}^d r \cdot 2^r$?

Given $$1\cdot 2^1 + 2\cdot 2^2 + 3\cdot 2^3 + 4\cdot 2^4 + \cdots + d \cdot 2^d = \sum_{r=1}^d r \cdot 2^r,$$ how can we infer to the following solution? $$2 (d-1) \cdot 2^d + 2. $$ Thank you
110
votes
19answers
18k views

Striking applications of integration by parts

What are your favorite applications of integration by parts? (The answers can be as lowbrow or highbrow as you wish. I'd just like to get a bunch of these in one place!) Thanks for your ...
44
votes
5answers
3k views

Proof of Frullani's theorem

How can I prove the Theorem of Frullani? I did not even know all the hypothesis that $f$ must satisfy, but I think that this are Let $\,f:\left[ {0,\infty } \right) \to \mathbb R$ be a a continuously ...
53
votes
10answers
2k views

Does $G\cong G/H$ imply that $H$ is trivial?

Let $G$ be any group such that $$G\cong G/H$$ where $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$. If $G$ is finite, then $H$ is the trivial subgroup $\{e\}$. Does the result still hold when $G$ is infinite ? In ...
43
votes
13answers
3k views

Proofs of AM-GM inequality

The arithmetic - geometric mean inequality states that $$\frac{x_1+ \ldots + x_n}{n} \geq \sqrt[n]{x_1 \cdots x_n}$$ I'm looking for some original proofs of this inequality. I can find the usual ...
42
votes
3answers
38k views

How to find solutions of linear Diophantine ax + by = c?

I want to find a set of integer solutions of Diophantine equation: $ax + by = c$, and apparently $\gcd(a,b)|c$. Then by what formula can I use to find $x$ and $y$ ? I tried to play around with it: ...
40
votes
3answers
1k views

Are all limits solvable without L'Hôpital Rule or Series Expansion

Is it always possible to find the limit of a function without using L'Hôpital Rule or Series Expansion? For example, $$\lim_{x\to0}\frac{\tan x-x}{x^3}$$ $$\lim_{x\to0}\frac{\sin x-x}{x^3}$$ ...
31
votes
9answers
2k views

why is $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} k^m$ a polynomial with degree $m+1$ in $n$

why is $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} k^m$ a polynomial with degree $m+1$ in $n$? I know this is well-known. But how to prove it rigorously? Even mathematical induction does not seem so straight-forward. ...
11
votes
3answers
6k views

I have a problem understanding the proof of Rencontres numbers (Derangements)

I understand the whole concept of Rencontres numbers but I can't understand how to prove this equation $$D_{n,0}=\left[\frac{n!}{e}\right]$$ where $[\cdot]$ denotes the rounding function (i.e., ...
18
votes
1answer
1k views

About a paper of Zermelo

This about the famous article Zermelo, E., Beweis, daß jede Menge wohlgeordnet werden kann, Math. Ann. 59 (4), 514–516 (1904), available here. Edit: Springer link to the ...
9
votes
5answers
5k views

The median minimizes the sum of absolute deviations

Suppose we have a set $S$ of real numbers. Show that $$\sum_{s\in S}|s-x| $$ is minimal if $x$ is equal to the median. This is a sample exam question of one of the exams that I need to take ...
11
votes
4answers
13k views

How to prove a sequence of a function converges uniformly?

For $n \in \mathbb{N}$, define the formula, $$f_n(x)= x/(2n^2x^2+8),\quad x \in [0,1].$$ Prove that the sequence $f_n$ converges uniformly on $[0,1]$, as $n \to \infty$. I know that the definition ...
11
votes
3answers
3k views

Proof that an integral domain that is a finite-dimensional $F$-vector space is in fact a field

I'm reading Galois Theory by Steven H. Weintraub (second edition), and finding that I'm at least somewhat short on the prerequisites. However the following proof looks wrong to me - am I ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

The Center of $\operatorname{GL}(n,k)$

The given question: Let $k$ be a field and $n \in \mathbb{N}$. Show that the centre of $\operatorname{GL}(n, k)$ is $\lbrace\lambda I\mid λ ∈ k^∗\rbrace$. I have spent a while trying to prove this ...
7
votes
2answers
907 views

Divisibility criteria for $7,11,13,17,19$

A number is divisible by $2$ if it ends in $0,2,4,6,8$. It is divisible by $3$ if sum of ciphers is divisible by $3$. It is divisible by $5$ if it ends $0$ or $5$. These are simple criteria for ...
4
votes
6answers
8k views

Prove $ \sin(A+B)\sin(A-B)=\sin^2A-\sin^2B $

How would I verify the following double angle identity. $$ \sin(A+B)\sin(A-B)=\sin^2A-\sin^2B $$ So far I have done this. $$ (\sin A\cos B+\cos A\sin B)(\sin A\cos B-\cos A\sin B) $$But I am not sure ...
376
votes
12answers
103k views

Does Pi contain all possible number combinations?

I came across the following image, which states: $\pi$ Pi Pi is an infinite, nonrepeating (sic) decimal - meaning that every possible number combination exists somewhere in pi. Converted ...
48
votes
2answers
26k views

When can a sum and integral be interchanged?

Let's say I have $\int_{0}^{\infty}\sum_{n = 0}^{\infty} f_{n}(x)\, dx$ with $f_{n}(x)$ being continuous functions. When can interchange the integral and summation? Is $f_{n}(x) \geq 0$ for all $x$ ...
33
votes
7answers
18k views

What is a good book to study linear algebra?

I'm looking for a book to learn Algebra. The programme is the following. The units marked with a $\star$ are the ones I'm most interested in (in the sense I know nothing about) and those with a ...
38
votes
8answers
88k views

How do I get the square root of a complex number?

If I'm given a complex number (say $9 + 4i$), how do I calculate its square root?
28
votes
2answers
2k views

Possibility to simplify $\sum\limits_{k = - \infty }^\infty {\frac{{{{\left( { - 1} \right)}^k}}}{{a + k}} = \frac{\pi }{{\sin \pi a}}} $

Is there any way to show that $$\sum\limits_{k = - \infty }^\infty {\frac{{{{\left( { - 1} \right)}^k}}}{{a + k}} = \frac{1}{a} + \sum\limits_{k = 1}^\infty {{{\left( { - 1} \right)}^k}\left( ...
30
votes
2answers
6k views

Why is $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{-n}], n\ge 3$ not a UFD?

I'm considering the ring $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{-n}]$, where $n\ge 3$ and square free. I want to see why it's not a UFD. I defined a norm for the ring by $|a+b\sqrt{-n}|=a^2+nb^2$. Using this I was ...

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