For question about weak derivatives, a notion which extends the classical notion of derivative and allows us to consider derivatives of distributions rather than functions.

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8
votes
1answer
392 views

Are a weak derivatives and distributional derivatives are different?

For simplicity, given a real function $f\in L^1_{loc}(\Omega)$, we define both weak or distributional derivatives by $\int f'\phi = - \int f \phi'$ for all test functions $\phi$. Now, take $\Omega = ...
7
votes
1answer
254 views

Justification of formal derivative

there I'm having the following problem and so far I didn't find anything in the literature on this. $\Phi\in C^1(\overline{\Omega}\times[0,1])$ with $\Phi'(x,0)=\Phi'(x,1)=\Phi(x,0)=0$ for every ...
6
votes
2answers
653 views

Product rule of weak derivatives

I am working on proving the following proposition: If $u,v\in {W^1(\Omega)}$ and $uv,uDv+vDu\in L^1_{\operatorname{loc}}(\Omega)$, then we have the product formula $$D(uv)=uDv+vDu.$$ The definition I ...
5
votes
2answers
312 views

Questions about weak derivatives

There are two definitions of generalized differentiation that seem relevant to the context of PDEs. (That is we generalize what objects can be differentiated but we stay in Euclidean space. There are ...
5
votes
1answer
932 views

Finding Weak Solutions to ODEs

I'm wondering if anyone has a reference to a good set of notes on finding weak (distributional) solutions to ODEs, or has any tips or tricks. For example, $$ xy^\prime=0 $$ has a classical solution ...
5
votes
2answers
215 views

Weakly differentiable but classically nowhere differentiable

Is there any example of a function which is weakly differentiable but none of its versions are classically differentiable (or differentiable only on a set of measure 0) ? Thanks
4
votes
2answers
345 views

about weak derivative ( Sobolev Spaces )

the following afirmation is true ? Consider $\Omega $ a bounded and smooth domain . Let $u \in W^{1,p} ( \Omega)$ ( p>1). Supose that $u \geq 0$. let $\alpha >1$ . Then $\nabla u ^{\alpha} = ...
4
votes
1answer
64 views

Sobolev spaces in one-dimensional vs multidimensional

Here in Wikipedia, it is said that in the one-dimensional case, it is enough to assume that the $(k-1)$-th derivative of the function $f$, is differentiable almost everywhere and is equal almost ...
4
votes
1answer
231 views

Weak derivatives

How can I prove that $|\nabla u|=|\nabla|u||$ when $u$ is regular enough for example Lipschitz or $W^{1,1}_{loc}$. Other question is about the pointwise derivative when $f:[0,1]\to R$ is BV is that ...
3
votes
2answers
228 views

Differences between $C_c^\infty[0,T]$ and $C_c^\infty(0,T)$

I believe it is true that: If $f \in C_c^\infty(0,T)$, then $f(T)=f(0)=0$. $C_c^\infty(0,T) \subset C_c^\infty[0,T]$ $C^\infty(0,T) \subset C_c^\infty[0,T]$ If $f \in C_c^\infty[0,T]$, it doesn't ...
3
votes
1answer
312 views

Is a continuous function with continuous weak derivatives of class $C^1$?

Let $f$ be a real valued continuous function of many variables whose weak derivatives of first order are continuous. Is this function equals a.e. function of class $C^1$ ?
3
votes
1answer
112 views

Properties of weak derivatives in Sobolev spaces

In PDE Evans 2nd edition, pages 261-263, there is a theorem and its proof which concerns the four properties of weak derivatives. Unfortunately, I do not understand the fourth property, which I will ...
3
votes
1answer
69 views

How does integration over $\delta^{(n)}(x)$ work?

For a math paper I need to be able to evaluate $\int_{-a}^{a}\delta^{(n)}(x)\ f(x)\ dx$ for differentiable $f$. I know that it is 'supposed' to equal $(-1)^nf^{(n)}(0)$: $$\int_{-a}^a\delta^{(n)}(x)\ ...
3
votes
1answer
424 views

Second derivative Dirac delta distribution times $(x-a)^2$, intepretation

I'm not sure if this calculation is correct and also if interpret it correctly (from old exam), Show that $ (x-a)^2 \delta ''_a = 2 \delta _a $. We have for distributions $f$ and test functions ...
3
votes
2answers
96 views

Weakly convergence in $W^{1,q}, 1<q<\infty$

Let $(x_n)$ be weakly convergent against $x$ in the Sobolev space $W^{1,q},1<q<\infty$. Now I have to show, that $(\dot{x_n})$ converges weakly against $\dot{x}$ in $L^q$. (With the point I ...
3
votes
1answer
249 views

Weak Derivatives and Lp spaces

I just want to know how to prove two properties of weak derivatives and $L^{p}$ spaces if they are true, the first one just involves weak derivatives: If we have a locally summable function $u: U ...
3
votes
2answers
241 views

Weak / Classical derivative

I know the definitions of both weak and classical derivative. But I am trying to see the classical derivative as a weak derivative. When we have $\int f' \varphi = -\int f\varphi'$ for all $\varphi\in ...
3
votes
1answer
424 views

Prove that $f$ does not have a weak derivative

Consider a function $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow [0,1 ]$ defined by: $\begin{equation*} f(x)=\left\{ \begin{array}{rl}0 & \text{if } x\leq 0,\\ 1 & \text{if } x\geq 1, \\ 1/2 & \text{if } ...
3
votes
1answer
184 views

Consistency of derivative definitions in Sobolev spaces

Just for the sake of completeness, I begin defining the Sobolev space $H^m(\mathbb{R}^n), \; m \in \mathbb{N}$, as the following set: $H^m(\mathbb{R}^n) = \{u \in L^2 : P^{\alpha} F u \in L^2,\; ...
3
votes
1answer
84 views

Finite Element Method Weak Formulation

I have a question about the weak formulation of a PDE in finite element analysis. Suppose we have the following two-dimensional PDE: $$ \Delta \cdot u(x,y) = q(x,y) $$ where $q$ is given, $u$ is ...
3
votes
1answer
145 views

If $f_j \rightharpoonup f$ weakly in $W^{1,p}$ then $f_j \to f$ strongly in $L^p$?

Suppose $1<p<\infty$ and $\Omega$ is an open bounded set in $\mathbb R^n$ with nice boundary (say Lipschitz or even better). Let $(f_j)_j \subset W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ s.t. $f_j \rightharpoonup f$ ...
3
votes
0answers
114 views

Differentiation of norm in Banach space (explanation of text needed)

Let $Y$ be uniformly smooth Banach space. Consider the convex $C^1$ functional $\Phi:Y \to \mathbb{R}$ defined $$\Phi(y) = \frac{1}{q}\Vert y \Vert^q_{Y}.$$ Its derivative $\varphi:Y \to Y'$ is a ...
3
votes
1answer
132 views

Weak derivative: Showing a function is equal to zero a.e.

I am very beginner in the theory of weak derivative. I am trying to fix the following problem: Suppose that $f\in{L_{loc}^{1}}$ and $\int_{a}^{b}f(x)\phi({x})dx=0$ for all $\phi\in{C_{0}^{\infty}}$ ...
3
votes
0answers
227 views

When the weak derivative just is the strong (or classical) derivative?

When the weak derivative just is the strong (or classical) derivative? For instance, can we prove that weak derivate $Du\in C^\alpha$(or $C^0$) implies $u\in C^{1,\alpha}$(or $C^1$).
2
votes
1answer
178 views

Winding number for Lipschitz curves

For a closed curve $\Gamma: [0,1] \to \mathbb{C}$ (i.e. $\Gamma(0) = \Gamma(1)$) let $$ \iota_\Gamma(z) := \frac{1}{2\pi i} \int_\Gamma \frac{dw}{z-w} = \frac{1}{2\pi i} \int_0^1 ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

Chain rule for weak derivatives of $f(u)$ where $f'$ is not bounded but $u$ is?

Let $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be $C^1$. Suppose $u$ has a weak derivative $u_x$. I want the chain rule $$\partial_x (f(u)) = f'(u)u_x$$ to hold. We know this holds if $f'$ is bounded. But I don't ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

Weak Laplacian of $\|x\|^\alpha$

Let $\alpha> 0$ and consider the function $\|\mathbf x\|^\alpha = (x^2 + y^2)^{\frac{\alpha}{2}}$ defined on $\mathbb R^2$. I want to compute the Laplacian $\Delta (\|\mathbf x\|^\alpha)$ in the ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Laplace transform of the derivative of the Dirac delta function

$$\int_{0}^{\infty} \delta'(t) e^{-st} \ dt = \delta(t)e^{-st} \Big|_{0}^{\infty} + s \int_{0}^{\infty} \delta(t) e^{-st} \ dt $$ $$= 0 - \lim_{t \to 0} \delta(t)e^{-st} + s e^{-st}\Big|_{t=0} = - ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Want to show $\lim_{\epsilon \to 0}\frac{1}{\epsilon} \int_0^T \langle u_t(t), T_\epsilon(u(t)) \rangle = \int_\Omega |u(T)| - \int_\Omega |u(0)|$

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be a bounded domain and let $u \in L^2(0,T;H^1(\Omega))$ with $u_t \in L^2(0,T;H^{-1}(\Omega))$. Define the truncation function$$T_\epsilon(x) = \begin{cases} ...
2
votes
3answers
91 views

Is a function in $L^2$ which second derivative is in $L^2$ in $H^2$?

Let $\Omega$ be a bounded domain in $\mathbb{R}^n$ with smooth boundary. Assume that $f\in L^2(\Omega)$ and $f^{\prime\prime}\in L^2(\Omega)$. Does one have $f\in H^2(\Omega)$? Useless comments: ...
2
votes
2answers
59 views

Density in $H^1_0$

Let $\Omega = \mathbb{R}^2_+=\{(x,y)\in \mathbb{R}^2; y>0\}$ and let $v \in H^1_0(\Omega)$. For $h \neq 0$ we define $D_h v = \dfrac{v(x+h,y)-v(x,y)}{h}$ such as $\forall \varphi \in ...
2
votes
1answer
151 views

Has a probability density function a weak derivative

Assume I have a probability density function $\rho$ on $R$. (e.g $\rho \geq 0$ $\int \rho dx =1 $ $\rho \in L^1(R)$ ...). So $\rho$ is the density wrt the lebesgue measure. Now I try to understand if ...
2
votes
1answer
196 views

Find a weak derivative

Find a weak derivative of the function $u:(-1;2)\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ defined as follows: $$u(x)=\begin{cases}|x|, & \text{if}\,\,\, x<1 \\ 1-x^2, & \text{if}\,\,\, x\ge1 \end{cases}$$ I ...
2
votes
1answer
401 views

function a.e. differentiable and it's weak derivative

Note - I am just starting to learn about theory of distributions, so this may be a trivial question, if so I'd be grateful for a reference, nevertheless the question is the following: suppose I have a ...
2
votes
1answer
145 views

Finding the weak derivative of order $3$ of $f(x)=\operatorname{sgn} \sin(x)$ where $\operatorname{sgn}$ is the sign function

Let $$f(x)=\operatorname{sgn} \sin(x)$$ where $\operatorname{sgn}$ is sign function. I need to find the weak derivative of order 3 for $f(x)$?
2
votes
1answer
120 views

Why is the weak limit of the derivatives the derivative of the weak limit here?

In [1, chapter 8.2.1.b, p.466] the author uses the following argument: Let $U \subset \mathbb{R}^N$ be an open, bounded domain with smooth boundary. Given a bounded sequence $(u_k)_{k \in ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Weak convergence of determinant

I'm having problems with the following question: Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^2$ open and bounded. Let $\{u^n\}_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ a bounded sequence in $H_0^1(\Omega:\mathbb{R}^2)$ such that ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

How to interpret $\langle (f(u))', v \rangle = \langle f'(u)u', v \rangle$?

We know that if $u$ has a weak derivative $u'$, and if $f \in C^1$ with $f'$ bounded then $(f(u))'= f'(u)u'$. But how interpret the duality pairing $$\langle (f(u))', v \rangle = \langle f'(u)u', v ...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

Approximation of a function with a polynomial of degree n.

Let $f\in{L_{loc}^{1}}$ such that $\int_{a}^{b}{f(x)}{\phi}^{(n)}(x)dx=0$ for all $\phi\in{C_{0}^{\infty}}(a,b)$. Then how do we show there exists a polynomial $P(x)$ of degree less or equal to $n-1$ ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

For which real values of $\alpha$ PDE $\Delta u(x,y)+2u(x,y)=x-\alpha$ has at least one weak solution?

Problem. Consider boundary value problem: \begin{cases} \Delta u(x,y)+2u(x,y)=x-\alpha, & \text{in $\Omega$,} \\ u(x,y)=0, & \text{on $\partial\Omega$,} \\ \end{cases} where $\alpha$ is ...
2
votes
0answers
116 views

Generalized chainrule for Sobolev functions with a cut-off

let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be a bounded domain and $f\in C^1(\bar\Omega \times (0,g(x)),[0,1])$ and $f(x,\cdot)$ increasing and $g(x)\in\mathbb{R}$ continuous (maybe better, Lipschitz?). I want ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Weak derivative of extended function

Let a locally integrable function $u: D \rightarrow \mathbb R$ has weak derivative $Du$ and let $K:=\operatorname{supp} u \subset D$. Let's define $v(x)=u(x)$ on $D$ and $v(x)=0$ on $\mathbb R^n ...
2
votes
1answer
123 views

Use difference quotient with not uniform bound to appoximate weak derivative

Suppose U is an open set,not necessarily bounded or has Lipschitz boundary, $f\in L^p(U)$ ,define the difference as usual: $$D^h_i f=\frac{f(x+he_i)-f(x)}{h},\ \ \forall x\in U'\subset\subset U$$ ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

A weak derivative of a function of two variable which depends only on one variable

Assume that $f: \mathbb R^2 \rightarrow \mathbb R$ is locally integrable and has a locally integrable weak patrial derivative $\partial_1 f.$ Let moreover $f$ depends only on the first variable: ...
1
vote
1answer
689 views

Quick question on definition of derivative in the sense of distribution

Consider a function f such that on $(-\infty,0)$ and $(0,\infty)$, f is differentiable. At 0, there is a point of discontinuity. e.g. $f(x) = 0$ for $x\leq 0$ and $f(x)=x$ for $x>0$ Then if we ...
1
vote
2answers
116 views

Inverse Laplace operator $\Delta^{-1}$ and Sobolev spaces

I'm looking for some regularity results for the inverse Laplace operator. More precisely - we're set in $\mathbb{R}^3$ and we are looking at the operator $$ \Delta^{-1}f = \frac{x}{|x|^3} \ast f$$ I'd ...
1
vote
1answer
138 views

Weak Derivative Heaviside function

I have to prove that the Heaviside function $$ H(x):=\begin{cases} 1 &\mbox{if } x \in [0,+\infty) \\ 0 &\mbox{otherwise}\end{cases} $$ doesn't admit weak derivative in ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Does this function has weak derivatives?

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be a bounded "smooth" domain and $\Omega_\delta=\{x\in \Omega:\ d(x,\partial\Omega)<\delta\}$. Let $U_\delta$ denote the part of the boundary of $\Omega_\delta$ ...
1
vote
2answers
79 views

Distributional derivatives on hypersurface?

In a paper I was reading, the define a set $Q=(0,T)\times \Omega$, where $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is a bounded domain, and then they write $$\langle \frac{d}{dt}u - \Delta u, \varphi ...
1
vote
1answer
193 views

Weak Differentiability of Holder functions

Is it true that every Holder function is weakly differentiable? If not please give counterexample. Thanks