For questions about vector spaces and their properties. More general questions about linear algebra belong under the [tag:linear-algebra] tag. A vector space is a space which consists of elements called "vectors", which can be added and multiplied by scalars. In other words, these are the spaces ...

learn more… | top users | synonyms

2
votes
1answer
26 views

Simple question - represent vector with respect to a basis

Basic question here, I've always been weak at this stuff. Suppose that we have a situation $U=WX$ where $U,W,X$ are matrices that are known to us. You can suppose that $U$ is invertible. I want to ...
3
votes
1answer
333 views

Vector Project onto Subspace

So the question is: Let S be the subspace of $\mathbb{R}^3$ spanned by the vectors $ u_2 = \begin{pmatrix} \frac{2}{3}\\\frac{2}{3}\\\frac{1}{3}\end{pmatrix} u_3 = \begin{pmatrix} ...
2
votes
2answers
355 views

If $V$ and $W$ are subspaces of the same dimension such that $V$ meets $W^\perp$, then $W$ meets $V^\perp$

I'm having a little difficulty understanding the proof for orthogonal complements. I kind of understand orthogonal complements, but I cannot seem to find a logic to this. I'm trying to follow along ...
-1
votes
2answers
56 views

Prove the Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality (missing a step)

during lecture notes I only caught most of the proof and couldnt write a step down fast enough, and I'm having a touch trouble seeing how to get from the previous step to the next. Here is what i have ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

I need help with a simple proof for the associative law of scalar multiplication of a vectors.

I need help with a simple proof for the associative law of scalar multiplication of a vectors. If $$(rs)X =r (sX)$$ Define the elements belonging to $\mathbb{R}^2$ as ...
2
votes
4answers
55 views

Prove $\left|\sum_{i=1}^n x_i y_i \right| \le \dfrac{1}{a} \sum_{i=1}^n {x_i}^2 + \dfrac{a}{4}\sum_{i=1}^n {y_i}^2$

If $X,Y$ are vectors in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and $a>0$ show that: $$\left|\sum_{i=1}^n x_i y_i \right| \le \dfrac{1}{a} \sum_{i=1}^n {x_i}^2 + \dfrac{a}{4}\sum_{i=1}^n {y_i}^2 (*)$$ I started with ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Show that there exists a non-negative integer $r$ s.t. $ker(T^r) = ker(T^{r+1})$.

Question: Let $V$ be an $n$-dimensional complex vector space, let $T: V \to V$ be a linear transformation. Show that there exists a non-negative integer $r$ s.t. $ker(T^r) = ker(T^{r+1})$. My ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

The spectrum of a polynomial of an operator, question about proof, why are the operators invertible?

I have a question about a proof. In the proof $\sigma(T)$ is $\{\lambda \in\mathbb{C}: T-\lambda I\text{ is not invertible}\}$. In the proof they use this lemma: Here is the proof, my problem is ...
4
votes
2answers
135 views

What do we call the covector associated to a vector?

Let $V$ denote an inner product space. Write $V^*$ for either the algebraic dual, or else the continuous dual. In either case, for each vector $v \in V$, we get a covector $v^c \in V^*$ given by: ...
0
votes
2answers
64 views

Distributive property of scalar multiplication over scalar addition

I need help with a simple proof for the distributive property of scalar multiplication over scalar addition. Help with proving this definition: $(r + s) X = rX + rY$ I have to prove the truth of the ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

range and kernel of linear transformation over infinite dimensional vector spaces

How to find the range and kernel of such linear transformations ? I have already gone over the literature and have found some useful helps at example 1 and example 2. However they deal with finite ...
-1
votes
1answer
27 views

Proving that a basis of an $n$-dimensional linear space must have $n$ linearly independent vectors

Okay, I understand that a property of the basis is that a $n$-dimensional linear space has to have $n$ linearly independent vectors. I don't know how to write a proof for this though.
0
votes
2answers
33 views

Possible definition of the matrix representation of a linear transformation with respect to given bases

Let $E$, $F$ be vector spaces with basis $\{e_1,\dots,e_m\}$, $\{f_1,\dots,f_n\}$. Let $T:E\to F$ be a linear transformation. We say that the matrix $A\in\mathbb{R}^{m\times n}$ represents $T$ with ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Is any linear combination of arbitrary elements in a vector space also arbitrary?

Assuming $K$ is some vector space, is it valid to say the following: If $a, b, c \in K$ are arbitrary and $\gamma$ and $\phi$ are scalars, then $a+b$, $a+c$, $a+b+c$, $\gamma a$, $\gamma b$, ...
0
votes
3answers
81 views

Prove that $\mathbb{R}^∞$ is infinite-dimensional.

Prove that $\mathbb{R}^∞$ is infinite-dimensional. The section that contains this problem deals with the idea of a basis, so the proof probably has something to do with it (since a basis must ...
-1
votes
2answers
39 views

Proving that the matrix of a linear transformation with respect to two bases has a particular form

I'm doing the conceptual exercises from my linear algebra book, and I ran up to the following exercise: Let $\mathbb{V}$ be a vector space with basis $\mathcal{B} = \{ \mathbf{v}_1, \ldots , ...
2
votes
3answers
77 views

Must a basis for an $n$-dimensional vector space have $n$ vectors?

Does a basis for an $n$-dimensional vector space have to have $n$ vectors? For example, if I form a basis for $\mathbb{R}^n$, do I need at least $n$ vectors in my basis set? In other words, can I ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Finding a vector in $\mathbb{R}^2$ given its coordinates with respect to a given basis

Consider the basis $B$ of $\mathbb{R}^2$ consisting of vectors $\begin{bmatrix}3 \\ -5 \end{bmatrix}$ and $\begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ -5 \end{bmatrix}$. Find $x$ in $\mathbb{R}^2$ whose vector relative ...
0
votes
2answers
58 views

Is “basis times square matrix” a new basis?

Suppose we have a vector space $V = (K, +, \cdot)$. Let $B$ be a basis for $V$. Now we take an arbitrary square matrix $S \neq 0$. $BS$ is just a linear combination of $B$. Thus $BS$ should be a new ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Possible inconsistency of column representation with orthogonality of vectors

Let's say I have two vectors $v_{1}$ and $v_{2}$ which form a basis for $\mathbb{R}^2$. Any vector $v$ in $\mathbb{R}^2$ can be represented as $$v = av_{1} + bv_{2}$$ for some $a,b \in \mathbb{R}^2$. ...
1
vote
2answers
75 views

Why people use the Gram-Schmidt process instead of just chosing the standard basis

I really can't find a reason for going through all the work of the Gram-Schmidt method to make a new orthogonal basis $B'$ given an old basis $B$. If I want to change to an orthogonal basis, the most ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Finding a matrix representation of the linear transformation $T\colon P_2\to P_2$ ($T(f) = f''+2f'-f$)

Find a matrix representation of the linear transformation $T: P_2( \mathbb{R} ) \to P_2(\mathbb{R} )$, where $T$ is defined as $T(f(x)) = f''(x)+2f'(x) -f(x)$. I know the standard ordered basis ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

Should I use set notation or list notation when writing out a basis of vectors?

I think in Sheldon Axler's Linear Algebra Done Right, he makes a comment about why the technically correct way is to write vectors in lists, such as $(v_1, ... v_n)$, while many books use set ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Is it possible to partition a basis $S$ of a Euclidean vector space into a basis for a subspace $U$ and its orthogonal complement?

Let $V$ be a Eucledean vector space with a basis $S=\{a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n\}$. Denote $U$ be a proper subspace of $V$. Can $S$ be partitioned into the union of proper subsets $S_1,S_2$ such that ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Where did I go wrong with the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalisation process?

Problem: Let $\alpha = \left\{(1,2,0), (1,0,1), (2,3,1)\right\}$ be a basis vor $\mathbb{R}^3$. Apply the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalisation process to turn $\alpha$ into an orthonormal basis for ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

What is Fourier transform of space variable? on the similar grounds what is the Laplace transform of the same?

I understand that the transform of time domain is frequency domain and the transformation of time to frequency domain is done by Fourier/Laplace transforms. I am confused about the transformation of ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

$Hom(V,W)$ remains unchanged when norms of $V$ and $W$ are replaced with equivalent norms.

I was thinking about the following question from section 3.4 of Loomis and Sternberg's Advanced Calculus The fact that $Hom(V,W)$ is unchanged when norms are replaced by equivalent norms can be ...
3
votes
1answer
120 views

Subring of $M_7(\mathbb{Z}_2)$ isomorphic to $\mathbb{F}_{128}$?

Let $A \subset M_7(\mathbb{Z}_2)$ be a subring such that no proper nonzero subgroup $V \subset \mathbb{Z}_2^7$ is invariant under all matrices in $A$. I suspect that $A \cong \mathbb{F}_{128}$, but ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Proving the Non-existence of an Orthogonal Vector in $\mathbb{R}^n$

If $X$ is vector in $\mathbb{R}^n$ with all components > 0 then is it true that a non-zero vector, $Y$, with all components ≥ 0, can not be orthogonal to $X$ ? Considering the angles that $X$ makes ...
3
votes
2answers
88 views

Prove that $V = \ker T \oplus \text{Im}T$

Let $T:V\to V$ such that $f_T = \sum_{i=0}^n c_ix^i$ and $c_1 = c_n = 1, c_0 = 0$. Prove that $V = \ker T \oplus \text{Im}T$. My thoughts so far: For some basis $B$, we have $[T]_B = A$. We know ...
3
votes
2answers
47 views

Prove that the linear transformations are the same.

I have this lemma: If X is a complex inner product space and $S,T \in B(X)$ are such that $(Sz,z)=(Tz,z)\forall z \in X$, then $S=T$. $B(x)$ is the set of bounded linear operators from X to X. ...
0
votes
2answers
24 views

Real valued continuous functions on [a,b] form a vector space with respect to usual addition and multiplication by scalars.

Real valued continuous functions on $[a,b]$ form a vector space with respect to usual addition and multiplication by scalars. Please help to show a proof. I think it would be a laborious one. ...
2
votes
1answer
876 views

Sketching a line segment from a vector equation

Sketch the line segment represented by each vector equation: $$\begin{align} r &= (1-t)(i+j) + tk \;& 0 \le t \le 1 \\ \\ r &= (1-t)(i+j+k) + t(i+j) \;& 0 \le t \le 1 ...
0
votes
2answers
42 views

What can I say about the constant of a Lipschitz condition for a scaled norm?

Let's say $X$ is a vector space with inner product $\langle \cdot,\cdot\rangle$ and induced norm $\|\cdot\|$. Then for a scalar $\theta > 0$ we define $\langle \cdot,\cdot\rangle_{\theta} := ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Set of Riesz homomorphisms

In a text I am using it states the following: "The set of all Riesz homomorphisms between two Riesz spaces does not ordinarily have a simple structure of its own. Consider for example, the set of ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Quotient space and affine space

Sorry for many questions in this part. But I am still confused about the following: From textbook "Optimization by vector space"(Luenberger): Problem: I read the def. of quotient space many ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Geometric concept of $A$-orthogonality, $A>0$

Assume the following is in in $\mathbb{R}^n$ 1. If $d_i,d_j$ are orthogonal with $i \neq j$, it means $d_i^Td_j=0$. 2. If $d_i,d_j$ are $A$-orthogonal with $i \neq j$, it means $d_i^TAd_j=0$. In ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Why is $U$ $T$-invariant?

Let $V$ a finite dimensional vector space and two sub-spaces, $U, W$ such that $V = U \oplus W$. Let's assume $T$ is a linear operator such that $W$ is $T$-invariant. Why is it true that $U$ is also ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Linear basis of sum of kernels of two linear applications from $\mathbb R^4$ to $\mathbb R^2$

Let $$L_{1}(x_{1},x_{2},x_{3},x_{4})=(3x_{1}+x_{2}+2x_{3}-x_{4}, 2x_{1}+4x_{2}+5x_{3}-x_{4})$$ and $$L_{2}(x_{1},x_{2},x_{3},x_{4})=(5x_{1}+7x_{2}+11x_{3}+3_{4}, 2x_{1}+6x_{2}+9x_{3}+4x_{4})$$ Let ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Why isn't the square root is cancelled in this formula?

$\sqrt{\sum\limits_{i=1}^M \vec{V^2_d}(d)}$ This is the formula of the Euclidean length of a vector in the vector space. The vector $V$ has a power of 2 so it is $V^2$. Why isn't the square root of ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Projection of a discrete subgroup of $R^n$ [duplicate]

Let $A$ be a discrete subgroup of $\Bbb R^n$ and let $V$ be a $m<n$ dimensional $\Bbb R$-subspace of $\Bbb R^n$. Is the projection of $A$ onto $V$ a discrete subgroup? I am most interested in the ...
2
votes
3answers
75 views

Vector space or vector field?

I seem to be having a problem distinguishing between a vector space (which I know to be a set of vectors over some scalar set) and a vector field. I know that in Multivariable Calculus a vector field ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

How can we derive the projection formula in general?

The derivation of the well-known projection formula $proj_\vec{b}(\vec{a})=\frac{\vec{a}\cdot \vec{b}}{\vec{b}\cdot \vec{b}}\vec{b}$ uses an argument based completely on geometry. We assume vectors ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Is there always a point with no gravitational acceleration?

Assuming that there are no 'point particles' but rather particles have finite size and density, and that the force of gravity is defined simply by Newton's law of gravitation: $$F_g = ...
0
votes
2answers
83 views

Sesquilinear Forms: Parallelogram

Given a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$. Consider a quadratic form: $$q:\mathcal{H}\to\mathbb{C}:\quad q[\lambda\varphi]=|\lambda|^2q[\varphi]$$ Suppose one has: ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Are invertible linear operators of bounded linear operators also bounded?

I have this definition in my book: Definition: Let X,Y be normed linear spaces. An operator $T \in B(X,Y)$ is said to be invertible if there exists $S \in B(Y,X)$ such that $ST=I_X, TS=I_Y$, ...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

How is this the Open Mapping Theorem?

My book has this theorem which it has stated as the Open Mapping Theorem: Suppose X and Y are Banach spaces and $T \in B(X,Y)$ is surjective. Let: $L=\{T(x): x \in X \text{ and } \|x\|\le ...
15
votes
3answers
56k views

How to tell if a set of vectors spans a space?

I want to know if the set $\{(1, 1, 1), (3, 2, 1), (1, 1, 0), (1, 0, 0)\}$ spans $\mathbb{R}^3$. I know that if it spans $\mathbb{R}^3$, then for any $x, y, z, \in \mathbb{R}$, there exist $c_1, c_2, ...
1
vote
1answer
125 views

Finding rotation axis and angle to align two 3D vector bases

I have asked this question before and, while the accepted answer solved my problem back then, I am still interested in finding the rotation axis and angle. Let me rephrase the problem here: I would ...
2
votes
3answers
121 views

Multipliciousness within an inner product space.

Question: Let $V$ be an inner product space and $v,w\in V$. Prove that $\lvert\langle v,w\rangle\rvert=\lVert v\rVert \lVert w\rVert$ if and only if one of the vectors $v$ or $w$ is a multiple of ...