For questions about vector spaces and their properties. More general questions about linear algebra belong under the [tag:linear-algebra] tag. A vector space is a space which consists of elements called "vectors", which can be added and multiplied by scalars. In other words, these are the spaces ...

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4
votes
2answers
980 views

Showing that a set of trigonometric functions is linearly independent over $\mathbb{R}$

I would like to determine under what conditions on $k$ the set $$ \begin{align} A = &\{1,\cos(t),\sin(t), \\ &\quad \cos(t(1+k)),\sin(t(1+k)),\cos(t(1−k)),\sin(t(1−k)), \\ &\quad ...
4
votes
1answer
150 views

Differentiation continuous iff domain is finite dimensional

Let $A\subset C([0,1])$ a closed linear subspace with respect to the usual supremum norm satisfying $A\subset C^1([0,1])$. Is $D\colon A\rightarrow C([0,1]), \ f\rightarrow f'$ continuous iff $A$ ...
4
votes
7answers
24k views

Finding a unit vector perpendicular to another vector

For example we have the vector $8i + 4j - 6k$, how can we find a unit vector perpendicular to this vector?
4
votes
4answers
6k views

Linear Algebra: determine whether the sets span the same subspace

So I am stuck on 51 here: 51. Determine whether the sets $S_1$ and $S_2$ span the same subspace of $\mathbb{R}^3$: $$\begin{align*} S_1 &= \Bigl\{ (1,2,-1),\ (0,1,1),\ (2,5,-1)\Bigr\}\\ ...
3
votes
2answers
116 views

What is (fundamentally) a coordinate system ?

Consider the following construction of vectors and points. Let's start with a vector space, or more specifically a coordinate space $F^N$ over a field $F$ and of $N$ dimensions. The elements of this ...
3
votes
2answers
218 views

Easy visualizations of small countable ordinals

The ordinal number $\omega^2$ can be visualized as $\omega$-many copies of $\omega$. Likewise, the ordinal number $\omega^3$ can be visualized as $\omega^2$-many copies of $\omega$, arranged as ...
3
votes
3answers
876 views

Adding two subspaces

I have two subspaces: $$W_1 = \{(x, 3x) : x\in \Bbb R \}$$ and $$W_2 = \{(2x, 0): x\in \Bbb R \}$$ How do I get $W_1 + W_2$? I tried simply adding a sample vector from each, i.e. $$ (1, 3) + (2, ...
3
votes
2answers
399 views

short exact sequence of holomorphic vector bundles splits but not holomorphically, only $C^{\infty}$

If there is a short exact sequence of holomorphic vector bundles, $$0 \overset{a_1}{\to} W \overset{a_2}{\to} V \overset{a_3}{\to} F \overset{a_4}{\to} 0,$$ then one can expect a $C^{\infty}$ ...
3
votes
1answer
485 views

Do there exist vector spaces over a finite field that have a dot product?

I've stumbled in the german wikipedia over the question if a vector space over a finite field exists, that has a dot product. Definition of dot product A dot product over a $\mathbb{K}$-vector space ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Span of an empty set is the zero vector

I am reading Nering's book on Linear Algebra and in the section on vector spaces he makes the comment, "We also agree that the empty set spans the set consisting of the zero vector alone". Is Nering ...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

Angle between two vectors?

I have been taught that the angle between two vectors is supposed to be their inner product. However, the book I'm reading states: Recall that the angle between two vectors $u = ...
3
votes
1answer
185 views

$4$ idempotent operators $E_1,E_2,E_3,E_4$ $:V\to V$ such that $E_1+E_2+E_3+E_4=I$ but don't partition the identity

Let $V$ be a vector space over $F$ such that $charF \neq 2$ Can anyone help me think of $4$ idempotent operators $E_1,E_2,E_3,E_4$ $:V\to V$ such that $E_1+E_2+E_3+E_4=I$ but $\{E_1,E_2,E_3,E_4 \}$ ...
3
votes
2answers
6k views

plane determined by 2 vectors

i have 2 perpendicular vectors in space . How can i determine the plane determined by the 2 vectors? Regards, Alexandru Badescu
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Does linear dependency have anything to do when determining a span?

Q: Does $\{(1,1) , (2,2)\}$ span $\mathbb{R}^2$? A: No, because they are linearly dependent. I agree that it doesn't span $\mathbb{R}^2$, but from my understanding, linear dependency has ...
2
votes
1answer
118 views

What is the difference between Cartesian and Tensor product of two vector spaces

In particular, how is it that dimension of Cartesian product is a sum of dimensions of underlying vector spaces, while Tensor product, often defined as a quotient of Cartesian product, has dimension ...
2
votes
3answers
87 views

Matrix-free proof of $Z(GL_n(F)) = \{\lambda I:\lambda \in F^\times\}$?

How does one prove that $$Z(GL_n(F)) = \{\lambda I:\lambda \in F^\times\}$$ without resorting to matrices (and bases)? (BTW, $Z(GL_n(F))$ is the center of $GL_n(F)$, the general linear group of order ...
2
votes
1answer
253 views

Algebraic complements in vector space of functions without the axiom of choice

The axiom of choice is equivalent to the statement that every subspace $U$ of every vector space $V$ has an algebraic complement, i.e. another subspace $W$ that has a trivial intersection with the ...
2
votes
0answers
222 views

Horizontal and vertical tangent space of Orthogonal group

We know for the orthogonal group n-by-n orthogonal matrices, the tangents are given by $X^T\Delta + \Delta^TX = 0$ where $\Delta$ is the tangent. Now I was reading about the vertical and horizontal ...
2
votes
1answer
364 views

If $X$ is infinite dimensional, all open sets in the $\sigma(X,X^{\ast})$ topology are unbounded.

As in the title, if $X$ is infinite dimensional, all open sets in the $\sigma(X,X^{\ast})$ topology are unbounded. The $\sigma(X,X^{\ast})$ topology is the weakest topology that makes linear ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Equation for non-orthogonal projection of a point onto two vectors representing the isometric axis?

Suppose I have two vectors that are not orthogonal (let's say, an isometric grid) representing the new axis. Suppose I want to project a point onto these two vectors, how would I do it? Dot product ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Example for finite dimensional analog of integral transforms

I understand that integral transforms are generalisations of the dot product of functions that could be interpreted as infinite dimensional vectors. The most significant advantage then is that ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Farey Sequence Vector Orthogonality Relation Question

Take the Farey sequence $\mathcal{F}_n$ for $n=39$ with values $a_m\in \mathcal{F}_n$ and put them into a vector $$ \vec v_k=\biggr(\exp(2\pi i k a_m)\biggr)_m $$ Since Merten's function for $n=39$ ...
1
vote
2answers
105 views

What is the product and coproduct of Morphism category(Arrow category)?

Given category C, Its morphism category D means a category that has 1) "morphisms of C" as its objects 2) "pair (f,g) s.t. the diagram(square) commutes" as its morphisms The above definition is ...
1
vote
3answers
104 views

What's special about the first vector

My linear algebra notes state the following lemma: If $(v_1, ...,v_m)$ is linearly dependent in $V$ and $v_1 \neq 0$ then there exists $j \in \{2,...,m\}$ such that $v_j \in span(v_1,...,v_{j-1})$ ...
1
vote
4answers
210 views

Proof: $\det\pmatrix{\langle v_i , v_j \rangle}\neq0$ $\iff \{v_1,\dots,v_n\}~\text{l.i.}$

Let $V$ be a real inner product space and $S=\{v_1,v_2, \dots, v_n\}\subset V$. How am I to prove that $S$ is linearly independent if and only if the determinant of the matrix $$ ...
1
vote
3answers
547 views

Induced Exact Sequence of Dual Spaces

So given a short exact sequence of vector spaces $$0\longrightarrow U\longrightarrow V \longrightarrow W\longrightarrow 0$$ With linear transformations $S$ and $T$ from left to right in the ...
1
vote
1answer
165 views

Dimensions of vector subspaces

Given a bilinear map $B:X\times Y\to F$ where $X,Y$ are vector spaces and given $S\leq X$, why is $\dim S+\dim \operatorname{ann}(S)=\dim Y$ where $\operatorname{ann}(S)$ is the annihilator of $S$ ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Finding loci of possible points satisfying vector simultaneous equations

I recently had an exam and a question came up which I was only partially able to answer. The question was the following: Let $\vec{a}$, $\vec{b}$ and $\vec{c}$ be constant vectors in ...
0
votes
1answer
84 views

inner product space , dual space, proof about isomorphism

Let $V$ be a vector space (not necessary being finite dimensional) and let $U,W$ be subspaces of $V$ such that $V = U\oplus W$. Prove that $V^\ast/(W^0)$ is isomorphic to $W^\ast$. Notation and ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

V = U⊕W then Prove that (V/W)* is isomorphic to W^0

Let $V$ be a vector space (not necessary being finite dimensional) and let $U$, $W$ be subspaces of $V$ such that $V = U\oplus W$. Prove that $(V/W)^*$ is isomorphic to $W^0$. note: (V/W)* is the ...
0
votes
3answers
54 views

Linear Algebra: Matrix Spanning/Consistency Question

1) If there are $5$ vectors found in $\mathbb{R}^7$ will these vectors Span $\mathbb{R}^7$? Please explain. 2) Give an example of a $3$ by $5$ matrix for which all systems, $Ax=b$ for any $b$ in ...
0
votes
4answers
69 views

A vector should more be thought an identity of an entity in space rathar than magnitude + direction?

Can I say that vector is more like a "unique identity" of an entity in space rather than calling it an entity with magnitude and direction ? For example a line. A vector $(10,10,0)$ is the identity ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

Proof of $(u.v)=(u_{x}.v_{x}+u_{y}.v_{y}+u_{z}.v_{z})$, assuming $(u.v)=|u||v|cos\theta$.

I would really love any sort of proof of this. I have a very elementary geometric proof for $R^{2}$. That's mainly because I can easily represent $cos\theta$ in the form of ...
0
votes
1answer
113 views

Problem related to differential of a map

I dont understand how to solve this problem. Please can you explain the solution clearly? I want to learn how to solve such problems. Thank you
0
votes
1answer
220 views

How is it possible for the inverse function of a linear-continuous-bijective function to be not continuous?

If $E$ and $F$ are two normed vector spaces, $f:E\rightarrow F$ is a linear-continuous-bijective function. Then naturally I would think that $f^{-1}$ is also linear-continuous-bijective. But the ...
0
votes
0answers
218 views

Visualization of 2-dimensional function spaces

As a follow-up question to what is the norm measuring in function spaces I just had an idea: How about visualizing function spaces as normal planes. What I have in mind is to have an orthogonal ...
-1
votes
2answers
79 views

Definition of dimension

Let us consider Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$. We say it is $n$-dimensional because each vector in it is an $n$-tuple $(x_1,...,x_n)$. However, it is possible to represent this exact same space using ...
11
votes
3answers
318 views

Dot Product Intuition

I'm searching to develop the intuition (rather than memorization) in relating the two forms of a dot product (by an angle theta between the vectors and by the components of the vector ). For ...
9
votes
2answers
206 views

If $V \times W$ with the product norm is complete, must $V$ and $W$ be complete?

Let $V,W$ be two normed vector spaces (over a field $K$). Then their product $V \times W$ with the norm $\|(x,y)\| = \|x\|_V + \|y\|_W$ is a normed space. Using this norm it's easy to show that if ...
8
votes
2answers
194 views

Can a basis for a vector space $V$ can be restricted to a basis for any subspace $W$?

I don't understand why this statement is wrong: $V$ is a vector space, and $W$ is a subspace of $V$. $K$ is a basis of $V$. We can manage to find a subset of $K$ that will be a basis of $W$. ...
8
votes
3answers
426 views

Linear independence of functions

I want to determine whether 3 functions are linearly independent: \begin{align*} x_1(t) = 3 \\ x_2(t) = 3\sin^2(t) \\ x_3(t) = 4\cos^2(t) \end{align*} Definition of Linear Independence: $c_1x_1 + ...
7
votes
3answers
269 views

Why define vector spaces over fields instead of a PID?

In my few years of studying abstract algebra I've always seen vector spaces over fields, rather than other weaker structures. What are the differences of having a vector space (or whatever the ...
6
votes
1answer
141 views

How many parameters are required to specify a linear subspace?

A problem in Peter Lax's Linear Algebra involves looking at the family of $n\times n$ self-adjoint complex matrices and asking: on how many real parameters does the choice of such a matrix depend? ...
6
votes
3answers
259 views

Prove $p^2=p$ and $qp=0$

I am not really aware what's going on in this question. I appreciate your help. Let $U$ be a vector space over a field $F$ and $p, q: U \rightarrow U$ linear maps. Assume $p+q = \text{id}_U$ and ...
5
votes
1answer
787 views

Does the multiplicative identity have to be 1?

I am just starting out with vector spaces and I am having a hard time understanding them. One of the requirements states that $1\mathbf{v}=\mathbf{v}$ where $1$ is the multiplicative identity. Does 1 ...
4
votes
2answers
62 views

Show ker($\alpha$)=ker($\alpha$)^2 iff ker($\alpha$) and im($\alpha$) are disjoint

Let $V$ be a vector space over a field $F$ and let $\alpha$ be an element of $\operatorname{End}(V)$. Show $\ker(\alpha)=ker(\alpha^2)$ iff $\ker(\alpha)$ and $\operatorname{im}(\alpha)$ are disjoint. ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Projection onto space in $L^2([0,1])$ gives shorter length

Let $f_1,f_2,\ldots,f_n\in L^2([0,1])$, and let $V$ denote their span. Let $P:L^2([0,1])\rightarrow V$ be the projection onto $V$. Let $g\in L^2([0,1])$. Suppose also that $g\in L^p([0,1])$ for some ...
4
votes
2answers
145 views

Show that $F+G$ is closed when $G$ a closed subspace of normed space $E$ and $F$ a finite dimensional subspace of $E$.

Question: Let $E$ be a normed space. Let $G$ be a closed subspace of $E$ and let $F$ be a finite dimensional subspace of $E$. Show that $F+G$ is a subspace of $E$ and is closed. I'm having trouble in ...
4
votes
3answers
173 views

Embedding torsion-free abelian groups into $\mathbb Q^n$?

Glass' Partially Ordered Groups states without proof: Every torsion-free abelian group can be embedded into a rational vector space (as a group). Can someone link me to a proof of this? It ...
4
votes
1answer
175 views

Normal $T\in B(H)$ has a nontrivial invariant subspace

I am wondering if the following is true: Every normal $T\in B(H)$ has a nontrivial invariant subspace if $\dim(H)>1$?