This tag is suited for questions involving Turing machines. Not to be confused with finite state machines and finite automata.

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What turmite runs the longest before becoming predictable?

When looking at 2D Turing machines, many of them eventually become predictable. For example, Langton's Ant, the champion 2-color 1-state turmite, develops a highway after 10,000 steps. Predictable ...
6
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195 views

Show that minimal CFG is undecidable (Sipser 5.36)

Question: Say that a CFG (context-free grammar) is minimal if none of its rules can be removed without changing the language generated. Let $MIN_{\text{CFG}}$ = $\{\, \langle G \rangle$ | $G$ is a ...
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143 views

What Constitutes a Pattern

Mathematics is often referred to as the "study of patterns." What I'm wondering is whether there is somehow a technical way to describe a pattern. For the length of this question let's assume that ...
5
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303 views

Designing a turing machine for primality check.

I am designing some turing machines, so far I have made Binary Addition and subtraction. Now I've been thinking that what if turing machine can check if the number is prime or not. Lets suppose we ...
3
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92 views

How to find the shortest path of a graph in a turing machine

I'm reading about Turing machine and I saw some examples as: Let $M_{1}$ a Turing Machine and the language $B = \{w\#w \vert w \in \{0,1\}^{*}\}$, We want $M_{1}$ to accept if its input is a member of ...
3
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95 views

Maths, esp. Godel, and poetry

At the risk of being an interloper: I'm a poet with a bit of mathematical training. Right now I've got a grant from the Arts Council of Northern Ireland to write a collection (loosely) based on the ...
3
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227 views

Proving a language is not recognizable

I have the following question that I just want to verify I have done correctly. Let $L$, $L_1$, $L_2$ $\subseteq \Sigma^*$ such that $L = L_1 \cup L_2$, and $L_2$ is decidable. Prove that if $L$ is ...
2
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46 views

How are weakly universal Turing machines actually defined?

For what I know, the definition of a universal Turing machine is something along the lines of the following (of course, details might vary from source to source): A Turing machine $M$ is called ...
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43 views

Find Pi number using Turing Machine

What is the most convenient and fast way to find first $n$ binary digits of $\pi$ using Turing Machine?
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96 views

Challenge on Some Definition on Formal Language & Recursive & Automata

We know set A is countable if A is finite or in a one-to-one mapping to natural numbers. Suppose $\Sigma$ be an arbitrary finite alphabet. I summarize my inference: a) Each arbitrary Language on ...
2
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68 views

Probabilistic Turing machines as random variables

A probabilistic Turing machine (PTM) is informally described as a non-deterministic Turing machine such that ''the next movement'' is chosen with a certain probability. Suppose that the input of a PTM ...
2
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157 views

Prove that $\overline{L}$ is not recognizable by showing that $B_{TM} \le_m L$

$\textbf{Problem}:$ $L$ = $\{\langle M \rangle$ | $M$ is a Turing machine over $\{0, 1\}$ such that for some $x \in \{0,1\}^*$, $M$ does not halt on input $x\}$. $B_{TM}$ = $\{ \langle M \rangle$ | ...
2
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141 views

Blanks in the Tape of a Turing Machine

I used to have a lot of trouble with Turing Machines, primarily because I thought that in-between input symbols on the tape, one could have an arbitrary number of blanks, so every input would need to ...
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19 views

$K(xy)\leq K(x)+K(y) +c$?

Could anyone show that for any $c$, some strings $x$ and $y$ exist, where $K(xy)>K(x)+K(y)+c$? Here $K(x)$ is the Kolmogorov complexity. I already know that $K(xy) \leq 2K(x) + K(y) +c$ and $K(xy) ...
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21 views

turing machine decidable description for the language

L = { | R is a regular expression that produces at least one word in {a, b} * which contains a symbol exactly 3 times} ...
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0answers
26 views

Are languages that contain the empty string Turing-Decidable?

Given a language that is Turing-Decidable, if you add the empty string to the language then is the new language Turing-Decidable? I am very confused at this problem because from my understanding the ...
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30 views

Reducability and decidability language

i am new to this course called Theory of Computation. And my teacher asked to solve this ... i dont know how to do it... please help Consider the langauge L_inf : A turing machine M belongs to L_inf ...
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137 views

Turing machine ( exponentiation )

How do I design Turing machine for exponential function $a^x$? I found this explanation http://philpapers.org/archive/LEMATM , but its too complicated. Could someone tell me please, is there another ...
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100 views

Prove that exists undecidable subset of $\{1\}*$

Hello my dear friends! I have following problem: Prove that exists undecidable subset of $\{1\}*$ The problem is that I don't know how to start. In real I don't what does it mean undecidable set ?
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113 views

prove that language is not decidable (string and reverse)

Prove that $T=\{\langle M\rangle\mid M \text{ is TM that accepts $w^R$ iff it accepts $w$}\} $ is not decidable. I have no idea how to start. Help me, please
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39 views

Why does a certain turing machine only accept regular languages?

why does a single tape turing machine, which can not write on the part of its tape containing the input, only accept regular languages? I am asking this because this question is being opposed to me ...
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47 views

Dual Turing Machine Simulation

(1) Define a Turing Machine that simulates a Dual Turing Machine (DTM)?. A dual Turing Machine is defined as a Turing Machine with 2 heads and 2 tapes. At every step, the DTM can read from either ...
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39 views

BusyBeaver growth: “simple” proof

I just try to prove that $BB(n)$ (BusyBeaver-Function) grows faster than any other computable function. Maybe someone can check the proof? $f(n)$ is a computable function which grows to infinity: ...
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79 views

Proof that Finite Turing Machine is reducible to Regular Turing Machine

I know that Finite Turing Machine and Regular Turing Machine are undecidable through Rice's theorem, but I may find a reduction among them? Finite TM = {< M > | L(M) is finite on {a}} Regular TM ...
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95 views

A turing machine which computes the same language as a “stay put” turing machine

Im not sure I really understand how stay put machines work. I know they are just like turing machines but with states. So they can "stay put". But what confuses me is when you define a FSA for a ...
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91 views

Extended PDA vs TM

We studied in class that PDA is less powerful than TM. My question is: Extended PDA : for every $\alpha,\beta \in \Gamma \cup \{\epsilon\}$, $\sigma \in \Sigma \cup \{\epsilon\}$, $q,r \in Q$, $w ...
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123 views

Oracle Turing machine - $E_{\text{TM}}$ and $PCP$.

$$E_{\text{TM}}=\{\langle M\rangle|M\text{ is a TM and $L(M)=\emptyset$}\}.$$ $E_{\text{TM}}$ is undecidable $$PCP=\{\langle P\rangle|P\text{ is an instance of the Post Correspondence Problem with a ...
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109 views

Primitive recursive and Turing machines

Can someone give me a hint or the start of a possible proof for the following theorem: A function $f: \mathbb{N}^r \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ is primitive recursive if and only if there is a ...
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53 views

(2,5) Turing Machine implemented with chess pieces

I recently came across a (limited) reference to a (2,5) Turing machine implementation that can be represented using chess pieces on a 2D board. I know it is possible to implement a UTM using ...
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21 views

Is the language that consists of machine configurations whose language is a subset of even palindromes semi-decidable?

Let $PAL = \{ww^R\ | w\in\{0,1\}^*\}$. Then let $A = \{\langle M\rangle \ | \textit{M is a Turing Machine and } L(M)\subseteq PAL\}$ Is A semi-decidable (Turing recognizable or recursively ...
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126 views

Time constructible, non-time constructible functions

A function T:N→N is time constructible if T(n)≥n and there is a Turing Machine M that computes the function x↦└T(|x|)┘ in time T(n). (└T(|x|)┘ denotes the binary representation of the number ...
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103 views

A question about the analogy between formal systems and Turing machines

It is well known the analogy between formal systems and Turing machines. If I am not wrong, you can code any formal system of language L in first order logic into a Turing machine, and there is a ...
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464 views

Turing Machine question, this is NOT HW

I was having a hard time understanding and solving this question that wants me to show the final tape and figuring out if whether or not the turning machine accepts it or not. I have a list of 20 ...
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49 views

Would adding a stack to a 2-stack Turing machine allow it to recognize more languages?

I don't think it should because a third stack would be superfluous. The machine could just reuse the first stack after it uses the second right? I'm just beginning to learn about Turing machines, so ...
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Is the Antikythera Mechanism Turing-Complete?

Is the following Turing-complete? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antikythera_mechanism As in, it possible to perform all of the operations of a Turing-machine, albeit with finite memory, with this ...
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21 views

simple questions on $TM$s runs lengths

Is it possible that the number of running steps in $TM$ that runs on word $w$ will be $0$? Is it possible that the number of running steps in $TM$ that runs on the empty word $\epsilon$ will be ...
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35 views

Prove that a certain intrinsic property of Turing machines is not decidable

Can anyone help me to prove that the following language is nod decidable? $$ A=\{\langle\,M,w,q\,\rangle\mid M \text{ is a $TM$ , $w$ is a word, $q$ is a state in $M$ and while $M$ runs on $w$ it ...
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41 views

Classifying languages

I'm working on understanding what kind of languages are decidable, recognizable, and co-recognizable. I came across this problem that I think will really help me but I'm still quite unsure of how to ...
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20 views

Prove uncountability of set L that L and L' neither of which is recursively enumerable.

How do I prove that the set of all languages L on alphabet {0,1} that neither L or L' are recursively enumerable, is uncountable? Proving uncountability can be done through diagonalization like the ...
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44 views

Turing machine macro notation

This is an example from the book Automata, Computability and Complexity by Elaine Rich. Macro language is defined as follows: (screenshot from the book) And these are the steps mentioned : Scan ...
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16 views

Prove by printing turing machine that RE closed under iteration

I do not know what is the formal name of printing turing machine in english, maybe "counter machine". This machine prints a whole language without any input. for example: counter machine that counts ...
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20 views

Is there a universal Turing machine on arbitrary number of input variables?

I know that for every $n \geq 1$ there is a partial recursive (p.r.) function $\phi^{(n+1)}_{z_n}(e,x_1,...,x_n)$ such that $\phi_{z_n}^{(n+1)}=\phi_e^{(n)}(x_1,...,x_n)$, where $\phi_e^{(n)}$ is the ...
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37 views

all recursive functions are turing computable

I'm studying with the book computability and logic(boolos). In chapter 5, the theorem is proved, indirectly, by showing that (recursive => abacus) & (abacus=> turing). But I want to prove ...
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82 views

Designing a Turing machine for Binary Division

I'm trying to design a TM to binary divide 2 numbers. The best approach I've found is the method: division as repeated subtraction, but I don't know if there's a fastest way or an easier way. ...
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26 views

How to compute the solution for this linearized diffusion-reaction system (separation of variables)?

Let $\Omega=(0,a), a>0$ and functions $u(x,t), v(x,t)\in\mathbb{R}$. Consider the diffusion-reaction system $$ \partial_tu=\Delta u+\gamma f(u,v)\text{ for }x\in\Omega,t>0\\\partial_t v=d\Delta ...
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39 views

How could I modify a Turing machine that attempts to move the head past the leftmost square(crash) on some inputs so that it doesn't crash at all?

Suppose that M is a TM that crashes on some inputs. How would I modify M so that the new machine accepts the same language but does not crash on any input ?
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27 views

Does 3-SAT reduce to 3-CNF-SAT?

I know that SAT goes to 3-SAT and SAT is reducible to CNF-SAT and CNF-SAT is reducible to 3-CNF-SAT but is 3-SAT reducible to 3-CNF-SAT? They are not the same thing though right because cnf makes it ...
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38 views

Design a Turing Machine to compute the function

I'm tasked with designing a Turing Machine able to run in this Turing machine simulator With the function: f(x) = { x : x < 3 x + 3 : x ≥ 3 Where input: ...
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20 views

Is a Turing Machine which must check every single possible string ever a decider?

When classifying a language, I've constructed a Turing Machine to recognize it. However, to do so the machine must check every single possible input string from an alphabet. Since this is an infinite ...
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26 views

What class of probability distributions do probabilistic turing machines induce?

What class of probability distributions is induced by the class of probabilistic turing machines? Is there a precise characterization?