Trigonometric functions (both geometric and circular), relationships between lengths and angles in triangles, and other topics relating to measuring triangles.

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21
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893 views

On Ramanujan's Question 359

In JIMS 4, p.78, Question 359 was asked by Ramanujan. If, $$\sin(x+y) = 2\sin\big(\tfrac{1}{2}(x-y)\big)\tag1$$ $$\sin(y+z) = 2\sin\big(\tfrac{1}{2}(y-z)\big)\tag2$$ prove that, ...
10
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143 views
+50

Find a closed form formula for $\sum_{n=2}^N\frac{1}{n^2}\sin^2(\pi x)\csc^2(\frac{\pi x}{n})$? - a sum shows all primes.

I meant by "closed form formula" a formulate that doesn't have summation or has very few terms. Maybe there's a better term for this meaning. I found this function that has very interesting property ...
9
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224 views

How to find this value: $\sum_{i_1=1}^n \sum_{i_2=1}^n \cdots\sum_{i_k=1}^n \cos\frac{k(i^k_1+i^k_2+\cdots+i^k_k)}{n}$

Question: Find this value $$\sum_{i_{1} = 1}^{n}\sum_{i_{2} = 1}^{n}\cdots\sum_{i_{k} = 1}^{n} \cos\left(k\left[\vphantom{\Large A}\, i_{1}^{k} + i_{2}^{k} + \cdots +i_{k}^{k}\,\right] \over ...
7
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111 views

Tridiagonal matrix w/trigonometric eigenvalues

Let $N=2^n$ for a natural number $n$ and $B$ be the $N\times N$ square matrix of $0$'s and $1$'s $$ B=\begin{pmatrix} 0 & 1 & 0 & \ldots & 0 \\ 1 & 0 & 1 & \ldots ...
7
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146 views

Trigonometry or inequality problem

Today, I saw this question: If $x,y,z \in [0,\frac\pi 2]$, $x+y+z=\frac{3\pi}{4}$ and $\sec^2(x)\sec^2(y)\sec^2(z)=8$, calculate $E=\tan x\tan y+\tan y\tan z+\tan z\tan x$ My first thought was ...
7
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288 views

Integral of a gaussian function of trigonometric functions

I need help with the analytical solution of this integral: ...
7
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4k views

Solution set of cos(cos(cos(cos(x)))) = sin(sin(sin(sin(x))))

(I'm new here, so I hope this question hasn't come up before) A bit of motivation for the problem: It is well-known that the equations $\cos(x) = \sin(x)$, $\cos(\cos(x)) = \sin(\sin(x))$, and ...
6
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33 views

Certain symmetrized product of cosines - can it be transformed into more manageable form

I am interested in the following expression: $$ F_{k_1,\ldots,k_n}(t):=\sum_{\sigma\in S_n}\cos(\sigma(1)k_1t)\cos(\sigma(2)k_2t)\cdots\cos(\sigma(n)k_nt) $$ where $k_1, \ldots, k_n$ are natural ...
6
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255 views

Maximal minimum for a sum of two (or more) cosines

Please prove (or disprove, and give the correct answer): $$2 =\mathrm{argmax}_{r\geq 1}\min_{x\in \mathbb{R}}\left[\cos\left(x\right)+\cos\left(rx\right)\right] $$ In other words, find $r \geq 1$, ...
6
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175 views

The minimum of $I_{n,k}=\int_0^{2\pi}\sqrt{3+2\cos(nx)+2\cos(kx)+2\cos(nx+kx)}dx$ is attained for $k=n$

I have the following conjecture: ``For each given $n\in\mathbb{N},\ n\ge 2$ the minimum of the sequence of integrals $I_{n,k}=\int_0^{2\pi}\sqrt{3+2\cos(nx)+2\cos(kx)+2\cos(nx+kx)}dx,\ k=1,2,\dots,n$ ...
6
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119 views

Condition for trigonometric inequality

I want to prove the following statement: Suppose $\frac{1}{4}(\cos(\theta_1)+\cos(\theta_2))^2+\lambda^2(a\sin(\theta_1)+b\sin(\theta_2))^2\leq 1$ holds for all $\theta_1,\theta_2\in[-\pi,\pi]$, then ...
6
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238 views

Rational multiples of $\pi/2$ whose sines are also rational

Let $f(x)=\sin(x\frac{\pi}{2})$. Let $R$ the set of $x$ such that : $0\le x\le 1$ $x \in \mathbb Q$ $f(x) \in \mathbb Q$ Hence, $0\in R$ as $f(0)=0$. $1\in R$ as f(1)=1. And $\frac{1}{3}\in R$ as ...
6
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670 views

Nasty Integral - Closed form solution?

Any suggestions on how to integrate this beast?: $$\int_0^{\omega_t}\int_{\omega_t}^f\sin^2(\omega_{12}/2)\sin^2(\omega_{23}/2)d\omega_{23}d\omega_{12}$$ where: $f{} = 2\pi+2\tan^{-1}(y,x)$ $y = ...
5
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77 views

Probability that the roots of a quadratic equation are real

Roots of the quadratic equation $x^2+5x+3=0$ are $4\sin^2\alpha+a$ and $4\cos^2\alpha+a$. Another quadratic equation is $x^2+px+q=0$ where $p,q\in\mathbb{N}$ and $p,q\in[1,10]$. Find the ...
5
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76 views

How do I evaluate this integral :$ \int_0^\frac{\pi}{2} [\text{chi}(\cot^2x)+\text{shi}(\cot^2x)]\csc^2(x)e^{-\csc^2(x)}dx$?

I have tried to evaluate this integral :$$ \int_0^\frac{\pi}{2} [\text{chi}(\cot^2x)+\text{shi}(\cot^2 x)]\csc^2(x)e^{-\csc^2(x)}dx $$ where, $\text{shi}(x)=\int_{0}^{x}\frac{\sinh t}{t}dt$ , ...
5
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46 views

Inverting a somewhat complicated trig transformation

I have, for somewhat arcane reasons, the following transformation between given spherical angles $(\theta,\phi)$ (with $-\pi/2 < \theta < \pi/2$) and new angles $(\theta',\phi')$ (with $-\pi/2 ...
5
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58 views

Generalized Trigonometric Functions in terms of exponentials and roots of unity

I am trying to come up with generalized trigonometric functions using the exponential definition that we use today for the trig functions sine and cosine $$\sin x=\frac{e^{ix}-e^{-ix}}{2i}; \cos x ...
5
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166 views

resizing rectangle within triangle

Imagine I have a parking lot that changes in width and length and in number of levels, and all of the levels need to be visible to a cctv camera at a fixed position, and I would want the camera to see ...
5
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127 views

A trigonometric integral with sin(cos(x)) in exponent

Evaluate: $$\int_0^{\pi} x\csc^{\sin(\cos x)}(x)\,dx$$ I honestly don't know how to deal with this case. If I apply the property $\int_a^b f(x)\,dx=\int_a^b f(a+b-x)\,dx$, I get: $$\int_0^{\pi} ...
5
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559 views

Maximum and Minimum value of an inverse function

Find the maximum and minimum value of $\arcsin \left(x\right)^3+\arccos \left(x\right)^3$. given that $-1\le x\le 1$ I have solved the problem but i am just curious to know if there are ...
5
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123 views

Generalized sine integral $ \int_0^\infty \sin^m(x^n)/x^p\,\mathrm dx$

I have seen that both the integrals $$ \color{black}{ \int_0^\infty \operatorname{sinc}(x^n)\,\mathrm{d}x = \frac{1}{n-1} \cos\left( \frac{\pi}{2n}\right)\Gamma ...
4
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82 views

Using the IVP definition of $\cos$ and $\sin$, how can we show that $\cos^2(x)+\sin^2(x) = 1$ without any “magic”?

One way to define the exponential, hyperbolic and circular functions is to assert that they're the unique solutions to certain IVP systems: The exponential function: $$\exp'(x) = \exp(x), \qquad ...
4
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0answers
77 views

Why is cos at $\pi/2$ not undefined?

If the $\cos$ function is based off of the ratio of the adjacent side of Euclidean, right triangle, with fixed hypotenuse length (such as the unit circle), then how does this correspond to a defined ...
4
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94 views

Trigonometric Expression for $1 + \cos \alpha + \cos 2\alpha + \cdots + \cos n \alpha$ using complex numbers

This question is not a duplicate because I am asked here to use the fact that $1 + \cos \alpha + \cos 2 \alpha + \cdots + \cos n \alpha = Re (1 + z + z^{2} + \cdots + z^{n})$, where the question this ...
4
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32 views

Get bounding rectangle segments of a rotated rectangle (matrix?)

My problem: I have: $x$, $y$ & $\alpha$ - the aspect ratio $o$:$p$ (red rectangle) I want to have $n$ & $m$ in dependancy of $x, y, \alpha, o, p$ I tried to figure it out with ...
4
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74 views

Why is the infinite product of this quotient of $\sin$'s equal to $\left(\frac{3}{\pi}\right)^{2}$[SOLVED]

I was intrigued by this answer the other day, but perhaps lack a little bit of the necessary background to understand a certain step. Namely, the fact that $$\prod_{n=1}^{+\infty} ...
4
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45 views

Use Trigonometry to make a Marksman's Sight

In the Civil War, marksmen used something called a "stadia" which is nothing more than a piece of brass with a triangular hole cut out and a slide with marks of varying distances. Line your target up ...
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64 views

Rational distances from the corners of a unit square

Is there a point all of whose distances from the corners of the unit square are rational?
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33 views

Iterated circumcenters - proving collinearity and establishing distance ratios

Let $P_0, P_1, P_2$ be three points on the circumference of a circle with radius $1$, where $P_1P_2 = t < 2$. For each $i \ge 3$, define $P_i$ to be the centre of the circumcircle of $\triangle ...
4
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70 views

$\int_{-\pi/2}^{\pi/2} \cos(a \cos\theta) e^{im\theta} e^{-ib\sin\theta} \mathrm{d}\theta $ Integration

I am struggling to find the integration of the expression below, $$\int_{-\pi/2}^{\pi/2} \cos(a \cos\theta) e^{im\theta} e^{-ib\sin\theta} \mathrm{d}\theta $$ where $a$ and $b$ are arbitrary constant ...
4
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99 views

How prove $\root 4\of{\frac{1}{2}\sin x\cos z}+\root 4\of{\frac{1}{2}\cos x\sin z}=\root{12}\of{\sin 2y} $?

Let $\sin(x+y) = 2\sin\left(\dfrac{x-y}{2}\right)$ and $\sin(y+z) = 2\sin\left(\dfrac{y-z}{2}\right)$. How prove $\root 4\of{\frac{1}{2}\sin x\cos z}+\root 4\of{\frac{1}{2}\cos x\sin ...
4
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113 views

Graphs of interesting integrals of the form: $\int \sin^a(x^a)\cos^a(x^a)$

Here are a few graphs of the form:- $$\int \sin^a(x^a)\cos^a(x^a)dx$$ Where $a$ is an even, positive integer. $a = 2$ $a = 4$ $a = 6$ Now, a few graphs of the form:- $$\int ...
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109 views

How to solve this equation in $ \mathbb{C} $?

From a small simple calculation , we get the following formulas: $ \begin{cases} e^x = \Big( \displaystyle \sum_{n \geq 0} \frac{x^{3n}}{(3n)!} \Big) + \Big( \displaystyle \sum_{n \geq 0} ...
4
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106 views

More on primes $p=u^2+27v^2$ and roots of unity

Given, $$p=u^2+27v^2=3m+1\tag1$$ and the cubic, $$x^3+x^2-mx+N=0\tag2$$ with its constant expressed in terms of $(1)$ as, $$N = \frac{1}{27}(1-3p\pm2pu)\tag3$$ and the sign $\pm u$ chosen ...
4
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114 views

Conditions to satisfy trigonometric inequality

I'm looking for sufficient (and necessary would be good too) conditions on $a,b,c$ such that \begin{align} a\cos\phi + b \cos 3\phi + c \cos 5\phi \geq -1 \hspace{20pt} (\forall \phi) \end{align} ...
4
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0answers
129 views

Prove That $1/\sin(i \pi/n)+1/\sin(j \pi/n) \ne 2$ When $n$ is Odd

The original problem is: Prove that $1/\sin(i \pi/n)+1/\sin(j \pi/n) \ne 2$ when $n$ is odd. I tried, and found that although everything looks similar, I actually know nothing about this kind of ...
4
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0answers
378 views

Reprojecting/converting an orthographic image/grid into a cartesian grid

I'm trying to dewarp a fisheye image into a simple rectilinear image of a subset of the fisheye. As part of this, I'm trying to map the azimuth/altitude values into a point on the image. The points ...
4
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548 views

$\arctan$ of constant multiplied $\tan \varphi$

Helllo, I'm new here. I will try this great place to get my answer. I have a next problem: $$\vartheta = \arctan(K \tan \varphi)$$ $K > 0$ Where $K$ is a constant. If $K = 1$ then $\vartheta = ...
4
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0answers
552 views

Find roots of sum of sinusoids

Given this function and an initial point, find the next root: $$ \begin{align} f(t) & = -L\\ & {} + A \sin(\Theta_1 + \omega_1 t) \\ & {} +B \cos(\Theta_1 + \omega_1 t)\\ & {} - ...
4
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107 views

how understand if a segment is inside a lissajous curve

i am a programmer and not a math guru, but i like geometry. so if i'm not accurate in math terminology or i have folly question please sorry me. i'm drawing with a programming language the lissajous ...
3
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0answers
70 views

Find the Integral, $ I_{1,1I}=\int \frac{x\arcsin{x}}{c\arcsin{k}+\sqrt{1-x^2} + x\arcsin{x}}\mathrm{d}x $

$$ I:=\int\arcsin\left(c+\frac{\sqrt{1-x^2} + x\arcsin{x}}{\arcsin{k}}\right)\mathrm{d}x $$ where $c$ and $k$ are constants with respect to $x$. Euler lets $$ I=\int \ln{(iu+\sqrt{1-u^2})}\mathrm{d}x ...
3
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0answers
34 views

Why doesn't the Sine or Cosine rule work when I'm resolving moments about P in this question?

I originally posted this on Physics stack exchange, but some users said it was more suited here, although the moderator who reviewed it decided not to migrate it, as it has some physics jargon- but I ...
3
votes
0answers
65 views

Putnam 2015 and Ravi Substitution

Let $T$ be the set of all triples $(a,b,c)$ of positive integers for which there exist triangles with side lengths $a,b,c$. Express $$\sum_{(a,b,c)\in T}\frac{2^a}{3^b5^c}$$ as a rational number in ...
3
votes
0answers
359 views

How to calculate $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\operatorname{arccot}\frac{1-k^2+k^4}{2k}$

How to calculate this trigonometric sum? $$\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\operatorname{arccot}\frac{1-k^2+k^4}{2k}$$
3
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56 views

Euler exponential continued fraction to compute the trigonometric functions and the golden ratio

Using the Euler continued fraction for the exponent, which is convergent everywhere on the complex plane: $$e^{-z}=1-\cfrac{z}{1+z-\cfrac{z}{2+z-\cfrac{2z}{3+z-\cfrac{3z}{4+z-\cdots}}}}$$ We can ...
3
votes
0answers
57 views

Want to know what's wrong?

I take a exercise from apostol's book. I was trying the next exercise and do it, but the answer (from the book) is different, and I don't know what part of my procedure it's wrong?. So I want to know ...
3
votes
0answers
31 views

Is it always possible to find the roots of $P(z)=az^4+bz^3+cz^2+bz+a$, where $a,b,c \in \mathbb{R}^*$, by first dividing both sides by $z^2$?

A classic way to solve quartics in the form $P(z)=az^4+bz^3+cz^2+bz+a$, if we know that the roots lie on the unit circle, is to divide both sides by $z^2$ and then use the fact that if $$z=\cos \theta ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

“Multiple angle” addition formulae for Jacobi elliptic functions

The addition formulae for the Jacobi elliptic functions are given by $sn(u+v)=\frac{sn(u)cn(v)dn(v)+cn(u)sn(v)dn(v)}{1-k^2sn^2(u)sn^2(v)}$, ...
3
votes
0answers
63 views

Reference request on some trigonometric identities

Reference request: Where is this trigonometric identity found? Here I will somewhat extend this earlier question (linked above) that I asked. \begin{align} \frac{a\tan\theta+b}{c\tan\theta+d} = ...
3
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37 views

Three-gap problem, easy version.

Let $N$ be a positive integer and $\theta$ an angle in $(0, 2\pi)$. Consider the map$$f: \{0, 1, 2, \dots, N-1, N\} \to \text{unit circle}, \text{ }f(k) = k\theta \text{ }(\text{mod } 2\pi).$$Show ...