Trigonometric functions (both geometric and circular), relationships between lengths and angles in triangles, and other topics relating to measuring triangles.

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14
votes
7answers
354 views

Ways to prove $\displaystyle \int_0^\pi dx \dfrac{\sin^2(n x)}{\sin^2 x} = n\pi$

In how many ways can we prove the following theorem? $$I(n):= \int_0^\pi dx \frac{\sin^2(n x)}{\sin^2 x} = n\pi$$ Here $n$ is a nonnegative integer. The proof I found is by considering ...
14
votes
3answers
402 views

An almost impossible limit [duplicate]

The following limit appeared in a qualification exam: Find the limit of $$\lim_{x \to 0} \left( \frac{\tan (\sin (x))-\sin (\tan (x))}{x^7} \right).$$ I ended up doing it in Mathematica, is there any ...
11
votes
0answers
344 views

What comes after $\cos(\tfrac{2\pi}{7})^{1/3}+\cos(\tfrac{4\pi}{7})^{1/3}+\cos(\tfrac{6\pi}{7})^{1/3}$?

We have, $$\big(\cos(\tfrac{2\pi}{5})^{1/2}+(-\cos(\tfrac{4\pi}{5}))^{1/2}\big)^2 = \tfrac{1}{2}\left(\tfrac{-1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^3\tag{1}$$ ...
14
votes
9answers
5k views

How Can One Prove $\cos(\pi/7) + \cos(3 \pi/7) + \cos(5 \pi/7) = 1/2$

Reference: http://xkcd.com/1047/ We tried various different trigonometric identities. Still no luck. Geometric interpretation would be also welcome. EDIT: Very good answers, I'm clearly impressed. ...
9
votes
6answers
1k views

Show that $\tan 3x =\frac{ \sin x + \sin 3x+ \sin 5x }{\cos x + \cos 3x + \cos 5x}$

I was able to prove this but it is too messy and very long. Is there a better way of proving the identity? Thanks.
14
votes
3answers
269 views

Proving a trig infinite sum using integration

How can I prove the following using integration and elementary functions? Prove that: $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\sin(n\theta)}{n} = \frac{\pi}{2} - \frac{\theta}{2}$$ $0 < \theta < 2\pi$
13
votes
3answers
336 views

Can $\sin n$ get arbitrarily close to $1$ for $n\in\mathbb{N}?$

Or put differently, does $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\big(\max \{\sin 1, \sin 2, \ldots ,\sin n\}\big) = 1?$$ My intuition says yes, but how can one prove this?
10
votes
2answers
349 views

A matrix w/integer eigenvalues and trigonometric identity

Any intuition and/or rigorous arguments on the proofs of the following statements would be appreciated: Let $n$ be a natural number. (a) Consider the following Toeplitz/circulant symmetric matrix: ...
12
votes
2answers
314 views

How to prove $\dfrac{1+\sin{6^\circ}+\cos{12^\circ}}{\cos{6^\circ}+\sin{12^\circ}}=\sqrt{3}$

I found this interesting result. Show that $$\dfrac{1+\sin{6^\circ}+\cos{12^\circ}}{\cos{6^\circ}+\sin{12^\circ}}=\sqrt{3}.$$ See this Wolfram Alpha output. My attempt is very ugly. We know that ...
8
votes
3answers
342 views

$\pi$, Dedekind cuts, trigonometric functions, area of a circle

(I should say at the outset that this question is broad, and may need splitting up. Although I ask several questions, I present them as one because they are not independent of one another, and I am ...
7
votes
4answers
458 views

Nth derivative of $\tan^m x$

$m$ is positive integer, $n$ is non-negative integer. $$f_n(x)=\frac {d^n}{dx^n} (\tan ^m(x))$$ $P_n(x)=f_n(\arctan(x))$ I would like to find the polynomials that are defined as above ...
6
votes
4answers
431 views

Integral of Sinc Function Squared Over The Real Line

I am trying to evaluate $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{\sin(x)^2}{x^2} dx $$ Would a contour work? I have tried using a contour but had no success. Thanks. Edit: About 5 minutes after posting this ...
6
votes
2answers
999 views

How was Euler able to create an infinite product for sinc by using its roots?

In the Wikipedia page for the Basel problem, it says that Euler, in his proof, found that $$\begin{align*} \frac{\sin(x)}{x} &= \left(1 - \frac{x}{\pi}\right)\left(1 + \frac{x}{\pi}\right)\left(1 ...
4
votes
7answers
255 views

Exact value for $\cos 36°$

Good morning! I'm having trouble with this problem... It's just taking me forever and I'm worn out and I'm lost on how to use a double angle identity for $72=2⋅36$ The problem reads as follows An ...
4
votes
2answers
146 views

In triangle, $\sin\frac{A}{2}+\sin \frac{B}{2}+\sin\frac{C}{2} -1 = 4\sin \frac{\pi -A}{4}\sin\frac{\pi -B}{4} \sin\frac{\pi-C}{4}$

To prove $$\sin\frac{A}{2}+\sin \frac{B}{2}+\sin\frac{C}{2} -1 = 4\sin \frac{\pi -A}{4}\sin\frac{\pi -B}{4} \sin\frac{\pi-C}{4}$$ My approach : $$ \begin{align} \text{L.H.S.} & = ...
19
votes
2answers
453 views

integrate square of $\arctan x$. Tricky

$$\int \left(\frac{\tan^{-1}x}{x-\tan^{-1}x}\right)^{2}dx$$ I ran across an integral I am having a time solving. The solution merely works out to $\displaystyle\frac{1+x\tan^{-1}x}{\tan^{-1}x-x}$, ...
13
votes
2answers
14k views

How does a calculator calculate the sine, cosine ,tangent using just a number?

Sine Θ = oposite/hypotenuse Cosine Θ = adjacent/hypotenuse Tangent Θ = oposite/adjacent So in order to calculate the Sine or the cosine or the tangent I need to ...
10
votes
3answers
10k views

Equation of angle bisector, given the equations of two lines in 2D

I have two lines in 2D expressed with general equation (or implicit equation): First line: $a_1x+b_1y=c_1 \qquad(1)$ Second line: $a_2x+b_2y=c_2 \qquad(2)$ If the two lines are intersecting I will ...
9
votes
3answers
265 views

How to prove $\cos\left(\pi\over7\right)-\cos\left({2\pi}\over7\right)+\cos\left({3\pi}\over7\right)=\cos\left({\pi}\over3 \right)$

Is there an easy way to prove the identity? $$\cos \left ( \frac{\pi}{7} \right ) - \cos \left ( \frac{2\pi}{7} \right ) + \cos \left ( \frac{3\pi}{7} \right ) = \cos \left (\frac{\pi}{3} \right ...
8
votes
2answers
222 views

Testing continuity of the function $f(x) = \lim\limits_{n \to \infty} \frac{x}{(2\sin{x})^{2n}+1} \ \text{for} \ x \in \mathbb{R}$

My Question is: Examine the continuity of $$f(x) = \lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{x}{(2\sin{x})^{2n}+1} \qquad \text{for} \ x \in \mathbb{R}$$ How can I do this? Honestly, speaking I have $\text{no ...
7
votes
1answer
184 views

What's so special about primes $x^2+27y^2 = 31,43, 109, 157,\dots$ for cubics?

While trying to find a closed-form solution for particular cubics as sums of cosines (related to this question), I came across this family with all roots real, $$F(x) = x^3+x^2-mx+N = ...
7
votes
1answer
920 views

A contradictory integral: $\int \sin x \cos x \,dx$

I've been thinking about integration lately, and I've come up with a question that I'm not sure how to address. Consider $$ \int \sin x\cos x \, dx = - \int -\sin x \cos x \, dx $$ I started with the ...
6
votes
2answers
349 views

Reference for a tangent squared sum identity

Can anyone help me find a formal reference for the following identity about the summation of squared tangent function: $$ \sum_{k=1}^m\tan^2\frac{k\pi}{2m+1} = 2m^2+m,\quad m\in\mathbb{N}^+. $$ I ...
5
votes
4answers
231 views

Integrate $I(a) = \int_0^{\pi/2} \frac{dx}{1-a\sin x}$

I have a problem with this integral. It seems that solution has to be simple, but I couldn't find out. $$I(a) = \int_0^{\pi/2} \frac{dx}{1-a\sin x}$$ I tried using integration by parts and ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Given a width, height and angle of a rectangle, and an allowed final size, determine how large or small it must be to fit into the area

In other words, if I had a rectangle of $10\times 10$ and an angle of $45$, and the allowed area was $100\times 100$, the rectangle would be about $70\times 70$. The allowed area is $100\times 100$ ...
4
votes
1answer
465 views

Calculating equidistant points around an ellipse arc

As an extension to this question on equiangular fisheye distortion, how can I calculate equidistant points around an ellipse (or 1/4 segment of) given it's aspect ratio? When it's circular, I can use ...
3
votes
4answers
2k views

Memorizing the unit circle?

I know a quick google brings up plenty of resources on memorization techniques for the unit circle but I thought I would get the math stack exchange's opinion. What is the best way to memorize the ...
1
vote
2answers
225 views

Finding an unknown angle

Geometry: Auxiliary Lines As shown in the figure:
12
votes
2answers
525 views

Evaluating $\displaystyle \int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\frac{\sqrt{\sin x}}{\sqrt{\sin x}+\sqrt{\cos x}}dx$

I have to evaluate: $$\displaystyle \int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\frac{\sqrt{\sin x}}{\sqrt{\sin x}+\sqrt{\cos x}}dx $$ I can't get the right answer! So please help me out!
11
votes
4answers
886 views

Solve $\cos^{n}x-\sin^{n}x=1$ with $n\in \mathbb{N}$.

Solve $\cos^{n}x-\sin^{n}x=1$ with $n\in \mathbb{N}$ I have no idea how to deal with this crazy question. One idea came into my mine is factorization, but I can't go on... Can anyone help me please? ...
11
votes
6answers
806 views

Complex roots of $z^3 + \bar{z} = 0$

I'm trying to find the complex roots of $z^3 + \bar{z} = 0$ using De Moivre. Some suggested multiplying both sides by z first, but that seems wrong to me as it would add a root ( and I wouldn't know ...
11
votes
5answers
762 views

Deriving the rest of trigonometric identities from the formulas for $\sin(A+B)$, $\sin(A-B)$, $\cos(A+B)$, and $\cos (A-B)$

I am trying to study for a test and the teacher suggest we memorize $\sin(A+B)$, $\sin(A-B)$, $\cos(A+B)$, $\cos (A-B)$, and then be able to derive the rest out of those. I have no idea how to get ...
10
votes
4answers
850 views

For which angles we know the $\sin$ value algebraically (exact)?

For example: $\sin(15^\circ) = \frac{\sqrt{6}}{4} - \frac{\sqrt{2}}{4}$ $\sin(18^\circ) = \frac{\sqrt{5}}{4} - \frac{1}{4}$ $\sin(30^\circ) = \frac{1}{2}$ $\sin(45^\circ) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}$ ...
9
votes
4answers
1k views

Evaluating the product $\prod\limits_{k=1}^{n}\cos\left(\frac{k\pi}{n}\right)$

Recently, I ran across a product that seems interesting. Does anyone know how to get to the closed form: $$\prod_{k=1}^{n}\cos\left(\frac{k\pi}{n}\right)=-\frac{\sin(\frac{n\pi}{2})}{2^{n-1}}$$ I ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Explicitly finding the sum of $\arctan(1/(n^2+n+1))$

This is from a GRE prep book, so I know the solution and process but I thought it was an interesting question: Explicitly evaluate $$\sum_{n=1}^{m}\arctan\left({\frac{1}{{n^2+n+1}}}\right)$$.
7
votes
1answer
241 views

Find the sum : $\frac{1}{\cos0^\circ\cos1^\circ}+\frac{1}{\cos1^\circ \cos2^\circ} +\frac{1}{\cos2^\circ \cos3^\circ}+…+$

Find the sum of the following : (i) $$\frac{1}{\cos0^\circ \cos1^\circ}+\frac{1}{\cos1^\circ\cos2^\circ} +\frac{1}{\cos2^\circ \cos3^\circ}+......+\frac{1}{\cos88^\circ \cos89^\circ}$$ I tried : ...
6
votes
3answers
947 views

Find the minimum value of $|\sin x+\cos x+\tan x+\cot x+\sec x+\csc x|$ for real numbers $x$

I'm tutoring for a college math class and we're doing putnam problems next week and this one stumped me: Find the minimum value of $|\sin x+\cos x+\tan x+\cot x+\sec x+\csc x|$ for real numbers ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Show $1 + 2 \sum_{n=1}^N \cos n x = \frac{ \sin (N + 1/2) x }{\sin \frac{x}{2}}$ for $x \neq 0$ [duplicate]

For $x \neq 0$, $$ 1 + 2 \sum_{n=1}^N \cos n x = \frac{ \sin (N + 1/2) x }{\sin \frac{x}{2}} $$
4
votes
2answers
189 views

proving $\csc^2 \left( \frac{\pi}{7}\right)+\csc^2 \left( \frac{2\pi}{7}\right)+\csc^2 \left( \frac{4\pi}{7}\right)=8$

How can I prove the following identity using complex variables $$ \begin{align*} 1) & \csc^2 \left( \frac{\pi}{7}\right)+\csc^2 \left( \frac{2\pi}{7}\right)+\csc^2 \left( \frac{4\pi}{7}\right)=8 ...
4
votes
7answers
5k views

Proof of $\arctan(x) = \arcsin(x/\sqrt{1+x^2})$

I've tried following this way, but I haven't succeeded. Thank you!
4
votes
4answers
1k views

Resizing a rectangle to always fit into its unrotated space

(For those coming here looking for answers to rectangle problems it may help to see the related (and solved) question: Given a width, height and angle of a rectangle, and an allowed final size, ...
3
votes
3answers
148 views

$4 \sin 72^\circ \sin 36^\circ = \sqrt 5$

How do I establish this and similar values of trigonometric functions? $$ 4 \sin 72^\circ \sin 36^\circ = \sqrt 5 $$
3
votes
4answers
252 views

Finding $\tan t$ if $t=\sum\tan^{-1}(1/2t^2)$

I am solving this problem. If $$\sum\limits_{i=1}^{\infty} \tan^{-1}\biggl(\frac{1}{2i^{2}}\biggr)= t$$ then find the value of $\tan{t}$. My solution is like the following: I can rewrite: ...
2
votes
4answers
154 views

Recurrence relation for right-angled triangles stuck-together

Given the image: and that $x_0 = 1, y_0=0$ and $\text{angles} \space θ_i , i = 1, 2, 3, · · ·$ can be arbitrarily picked. How can I derive a recurrence relationship for $x_{n+1}$ and $x_n$? I ...
2
votes
3answers
193 views

Finding the exact value of $\tan(\pi/5)$

Hi, I realise there has been a question already asked regarding this particular exact value, but this question requires for it to be done under different conditions, which is the part I require help ...
2
votes
4answers
125 views

If $\alpha = \frac{2\pi}{7}$ then the find the value of $\tan\alpha .\tan2\alpha +\tan2\alpha \tan4\alpha +\tan4\alpha \tan\alpha.$

If $\alpha = \frac{2\pi}{7}$ then the find the value of $\tan\alpha .\tan2\alpha +\tan2\alpha \tan4\alpha +\tan4\alpha \tan\alpha$ My 1st approach : $\tan(\alpha +2\alpha +4\alpha) = ...
2
votes
4answers
557 views

Proof of $\arctan{2} = \pi/2 -\arctan{1/2}$

I am studying undergraduate complex analysis, and in my Textbook the author claimed that $$\arctan(2)=\frac{\pi}{2}-\arctan\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)$$ when he was doing an example regarding to ...
2
votes
1answer
119 views

Is there a way to solve for $x$ in $\cos^{-1}(ax) / \cos^{-1}(bx) = c$?

Is there a way to solve for $x$ in $\dfrac{\cos^{-1}(ax)}{\cos^{-1}(bx)} = c$? I guess it comes down to, are there any sine multiplication formulas I don't know about? The motivation for this is ...
1
vote
0answers
132 views

Trigonometric curiosity

How prove this $$-\tan\frac{10\pi}{41}+4\left(\sin\frac{2\pi}{41}+\sin\frac{4\pi}{41}+\sin\frac{12\pi}{41}+\sin\frac{20\pi}{41}-\sin\frac{26\pi}{41}-\sin \frac{30\pi}{41}\right)= ...
1
vote
4answers
613 views

Difficult trigonometric equation

Please, can you suggest something for solving this equation: I have to find the solutions included in interval $\left[3\pi/2, 2\pi\right]$: $$\sqrt{3\cos^2 x - \sin 2x} = - \sin x$$ This is what I ...