Trigonometric functions (both geometric and circular), relationships between lengths and angles in triangles, and other topics relating to measuring triangles.

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3
votes
2answers
582 views

Proving: $\cos A \cdot \cos 2A \cdot \cos 2^{2}A \cdot \cos 2^{3}A … \cos 2^{n-1}A = \frac { \sin 2^n A}{ 2^n \sin A } $

$$\cos A \cdot \cos 2A \cdot \cos 2^{2}A \cdot \cos 2^{3}A ... \cos 2^{n-1}A = \frac { \sin 2^n A}{ 2^n \sin A } $$ I am very much inquisitive to see how this trigonometrical identity can be ...
2
votes
3answers
391 views

If $\sin(a)\sin(b)\sin(c)+\cos(a)\cos(b)=1$ then find the value of $\sin(c)$

If $$\sin(a)\sin(b)\sin(c)+\cos(a)\cos(b)=1,$$;where abc are the angles of the triangle.! then find the value of $\sin(c)$. By trial and error put this triangle as right angled isosceles and got the ...
2
votes
4answers
784 views

How to derive inverse hyperbolic trigonometric functions

$e^{i\theta}=\cos\theta + i\sin \theta$ $e^{i\sin^{-1}x}=\cos(\sin^{-1}x)+i\sin(\sin^{-1}x)$ $i\sin^{-1}x=\ln|\sqrt{1-x^2} + ix|$ $\sin^{-1}x=-i\ln|\sqrt{1-x^2} + ix|$ Now from here I'm kind of ...
2
votes
0answers
284 views

Product of Sine: $\prod_{i=1}^n\sin x_i=k$

From the article Products of Sines, we have $\sin 15^\circ\sin75^\circ=\sin 18^\circ\sin54^\circ=\frac{1}{4}$. We can rewrite this as $\sin \frac{\pi}{12}\sin\frac{5\pi}{12}=\sin ...
0
votes
2answers
244 views

Why does $\sin^{-1}(\sin(\pi))$ not equal $\pi$

And when does $\sin^{-1}(\sin(x)) = x$
0
votes
1answer
510 views

How to prove $ \sin x=…(1+\frac{x}{3\pi})(1+\frac{x}{2\pi})(1+\frac{x}{\pi})x(1-\frac{x}{3\pi})(1-\frac{x}{2\pi})(1-\frac{x}{\pi})…$? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: infinite product of sine function Here is an other one which is more or less what Euler did in one of his proofs. The function sinx where x∈R is zero exactly at ...
23
votes
5answers
4k views

Why is $\sin(d\Phi) = d\Phi$ where $d\Phi$ is very small?

I haven't touched Physics and Math (especially continuous Math) for a long time, so please bear with me. In essence, I'm going over a few Physics lectures, one which tries to calculate the Force ...
9
votes
6answers
477 views

Derive $\frac{d}{dx} \left[\sin^{-1} x\right] = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}$

Derive $\frac{d}{dx} \left[\sin^{-1} x\right] = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}$ (Hint: set $x = \sin y$ and use implicit differentiation) So, I tried to use the hint and I got: $x = \sin y$ ...
6
votes
1answer
476 views

Rigorous proof of an infinite product.

I'll give a proof of the following expansion: $$\frac{\sin x}{x} = \prod_{i=1}^{\infty} \cos \frac{x}{2^i}$$ $${\sin x} = 2 \cos \frac{x}{2}\sin \frac{x}{2}$$ $${\sin x} = 2^2 \cos \frac{x}{2}\cos ...
5
votes
4answers
156 views

If $\frac{\sin^4 x}{a}+\frac{\cos^4 x}{b}=\frac{1}{a+b}$, then show that $\frac{\sin^6 x}{a^2}+\frac{\cos^6 x}{b^2}=\frac{1}{(a+b)^2}$

If $\frac{\sin^4 x}{a}+\frac{\cos^4 x}{b}=\frac{1}{a+b}$, then show that $\frac{\sin^6 x}{a^2}+\frac{\cos^6 x}{b^2}=\frac{1}{(a+b)^2}$ My work: $(\frac{\sin^4 x}{a}+\frac{\cos^4 ...
5
votes
3answers
5k views

How to find roots of $X^5 - 1$?

How to find roots of $X^5 - 1$? (Or any polynomial of that form where $X$ has an odd power.)
4
votes
4answers
258 views

Solving a trigonometric equation

How can I solve this trigonometric equation? $$\sin(x)=\tan(\frac{\pi}{15})\tan(\frac{4\pi}{15})\tan(\frac{3\pi}{10})\tan(\frac{6\pi}{15}).$$
4
votes
4answers
951 views

Evaluate $\tan ^{2}20^{\circ}+\tan ^{2}40^{\circ}+\tan ^{2}80^{\circ}$

Evaluate $\tan ^{2}20^{\circ}+\tan ^{2}40^{\circ}+\tan ^{2}80^{\circ}$. Can anyone help me with this? Thank You!
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Integrate $\csc^3{x} \ dx$

I found these step which explain how to integrate $\csc^3{x} \ dx$. I understand everything, except the step I highlighted below. How did we go from: $$\int\frac{\csc^2 x - \csc x \cot x}{\csc x - ...
3
votes
2answers
591 views

How to prove $\cos 36^{\circ} = (1+ \sqrt 5)/4$?

Given $4 \cos^2 x -2\cos x -1 = 0$. Use this to show that $\cos 36^{\circ} = (1+ \sqrt 5)/4$, $\cos 72^{\circ} = (-1+\sqrt 5)/4$ Your help is greatly appreciated! Thanks
3
votes
4answers
298 views

Given that $\;\sin^3x\sin3x = \sum^n_{m=0}C_m\cos mx\,,\; C_n \neq 0\;$ is an identity . Find the value of n.

Problem : Given that $\sin^3 x \sin 3x = \sum^n_{m=0}C_m \cos mx, C_n \neq 0 $ is an identity. Find the value of n. I tried : $\sin3x = 3\sin x - 4\sin^3 x$ but unable to reach to any point.... ...
3
votes
4answers
761 views

Sequence of solutions to $x\sin x=1$

Moderator Note: At the time that this question was posted, it was from an ongoing contest. The relevant deadline has now passed. Consider a sequence $x_n, n\ge1$ formed by positive solutions to ...
2
votes
3answers
102 views

Convergence test of the series $\sum\sin100n$ [duplicate]

I need to prove that $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} {\sin{100n}} \; \text{diverges}$$ I think the best way to do it is to show that $\lim_{n\to \infty}{\sin{100n}}\not=0$. But how do I prove it?
1
vote
2answers
49 views

How to to a better approach for this :?

If, $$x\cos A+y\sin A=k=x\cos B+y\sin B$$ Then find $(\cos A)(\cos B)$, $(\sin A)(\sin B)$ and $\cos A+\cos B$ and express them in terms of $x,y,k$ I found a solution but it included a really ...
1
vote
2answers
85 views

Relationship among $A,B,C,D$ for $\cos A\cos B=\cos C\cos D$

While solving this Question, I could derive the following: As $\displaystyle 2\cos A\cos B=\cos(A-B)+\cos(A+B)$ substituting $A+B=90^\circ\iff B=90^\circ-A$ we get $\displaystyle 2\cos ...
1
vote
4answers
766 views

Find the value of $\displaystyle\sqrt{3} \cdot \cot (20^{\circ}) - 4 \cdot \cos (20^{\circ}) $

How to find the value of $$\displaystyle\sqrt{3} \cdot \cot (20^{\circ}) - 4 \cdot \cos (20^{\circ})$$ manually ?
8
votes
2answers
254 views

Compute $\int_0^1 \frac{\arcsin(x)}{x}dx$

$$\int_0^1 \frac{\arcsin(x)}{x}dx$$ This is a proposed for a Calculus II exam, and I have absolutely no idea how to solve it. Tried using Frullani or Lobachevsky integrals, or beta and gamma ...
6
votes
3answers
436 views

Prove trigonometry identity for $\cos A+\cos B+\cos C$

I humbly ask for help in the following problem. If \begin{equation} A+B+C=180 \end{equation} Then prove \begin{equation} \cos A+\cos B+\cos C=1+4\sin(A/2)\sin(B/2)\sin(C/2) \end{equation} How would ...
4
votes
3answers
241 views

Differentiate $\sin \sqrt{x^2+1} $with respect to $x$?

Differentiate $$ \sin \sqrt{x^2+1} $$ with respect to $x$? Can someone please help me with question, im very lost.
4
votes
4answers
2k views

Trying to derive an inverse trigonometric function

I'd like to know how to derive these functions (I know the answers, I want to know how to get there) \begin{align*} f(x) &= \arcsin\left(\frac{x}{3}\right)\\ f(x) &= \arccos(2x+1)\\ f(x) ...
3
votes
2answers
802 views

Finding the widest angle to shoot a soccer ball from the sideline using optimization

I'm trying to do an independent project for my Math class, but I was stuck and couldn't figure out how to use optimization to find position along the sideline that gives the widest angle to shoot. ...
3
votes
2answers
311 views

Prove that $x^2<\sin x \tan x$ as $x \to 0$ [duplicate]

$$x^2<\sin x \tan x \quad as \; x \to 0$$ I made the substitution $x \to \arctan x$ . $\arctan^2 x<x\sin (\arctan x)$ $\arctan x < \large \frac{x}{(x^2+1)^{\frac 14}}$ There are two ...
2
votes
3answers
133 views

Calculate $\tan9^{\circ}-\tan27^{\circ}-\tan63^{\circ}+\tan81^{\circ}$ [closed]

Calculate $\tan9^{\circ}-\tan27^{\circ}-\tan63^{\circ}+\tan81^{\circ}$? The correct answer should be 4.
2
votes
2answers
77 views

Find the product

Task is to find $$\prod_{k=0}^{\infty} \cos(x \cdot 2^{-k}).$$ I tried to make it with double-angle formula: $\prod_{k=0}^{\infty} \cos(x \cdot 2^{-k}) = \frac{\prod_{k=0}^\infty ...
2
votes
1answer
277 views

Tide and Trigonometric functions

I have a tide guide that gives me four readings for the day - 2 high tides and two low tides. This means it completes two full revolutions within a day. What I'm having trouble with is taking the four ...
2
votes
3answers
117 views

Fractional Trigonometric Integrands

$$∫\frac{a\sin x+b\cos x+c}{d\sin x+e\cos x+f}dx$$ $$∫\frac{a\sin x+b\cos x}{c\sin x+d\cos x}dx$$ $$∫\frac{dx}{a\sin x+\cos x}$$ What are the relations between the numerator in the denominator, and ...
1
vote
4answers
160 views

Number of iterations to reach cosine's fixed point

I was messing around with my calculator the other day when I saw something interesting happen. Whenever I repetitively took the cosine of any number, it always ended up on a particular number ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Finding equation using hyperbolic transcendental functions.

I have tried and tried but cannot for the life of me see how one equation follows onto the other... can anybody help?? $$\Omega(\theta)=-b.\coth(\operatorname{arsinh}(\exp a\theta . \sinh(c_0)))$$ ...
0
votes
1answer
137 views

Trigonometric AP relation on sides of a triangle

The sides of a triangle are in AP (Arithmetic Progression) and the greatest angle exceeds the least angle by $90$ degrees prove that the sides are proportional to $7^{\frac{1}{2}}+1$ , ...
0
votes
1answer
85 views

Help needed with trigonometric identity

Prove that $$\left(\sqrt{3} -4\sin\left(\frac{2\pi}{15}\right)\right)\cos\left(\frac{\pi}{30} \right) =\sin\left(\frac{\pi}{30} \right).$$
0
votes
1answer
90 views

Engineering Mathematics

I have been revising basic compound angles and I am struggling to understand the following question from the examples I have previously studied on such topic. I cannot envisage the compound angle ...
0
votes
2answers
465 views

Sines and cosines of angles in arithmetic progression

Prove that if $\phi$ is not equal to $2k\pi$ for any integer $k$, then $$\sum_{t=0}^{n} \sin{(\theta + t \phi)}=\frac{\sin({\frac{(n+1)\phi}2})\sin{(\theta+\frac{n \phi}2)}}{\sin{(\frac{\phi}2)}}$$ ...
33
votes
3answers
664 views

$\sum_{n=1}^\infty(n\ \text{arccot}\ n-1)$

Is it possible to calculate the following infinite sum in a closed form? If yes, please point me to the right direction. $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty(n\ \text{arccot}\ n-1)$$
40
votes
4answers
3k views

Do “Parabolic Trigonometric Functions” exist?

The parametric equation $$\begin{align*} x(t) &= \cos t\\ y(t) &= \sin t \end{align*}$$ traces the unit circle centered at the origin ($x^2+y^2=1$). Similarly, $$\begin{align*} x(t) ...
26
votes
1answer
527 views

$\int_0^1\arctan\,_4F_3\left(\frac{1}{5},\frac{2}{5},\frac{3}{5},\frac{4}{5};\frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{4},\frac{5}{4};\frac{x}{64}\right)\,\mathrm dx$

I need help with calculating this integral: $$\int_0^1\arctan\,_4F_3\left(\frac{1}{5},\frac{2}{5},\frac{3}{5},\frac{4}{5};\frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{4},\frac{5}{4};\frac{x}{64}\right)\,\mathrm dx,$$ where ...
21
votes
4answers
654 views

Is $\sum_{k=1}^{m-1}\frac{1}{\sin^2\frac{k\pi}{m}}=\frac{m^2-1}{3}$ true for $m\in\mathbb N$?

Question : Is the following true for any $m\in\mathbb N$? $$\begin{align}\sum_{k=1}^{m-1}\frac{1}{\sin^2\frac{k\pi}{m}}=\frac{m^2-1}{3}\qquad(\star)\end{align}$$ Motivation : I reached ...
11
votes
2answers
224 views

Need help with calculating this sum: $\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{1}{2^n}\tan\frac{1}{2^n}$

I need help with calculating this sum: $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{1}{2^n}\tan\frac{1}{2^n}$$
17
votes
1answer
273 views

Some trigo identities

I aacidently found the following: $$\sin\frac{2\pi}{7}+\sin\frac{4\pi}{7}-\sin\frac{6\pi}{7}=\frac{\sqrt{7}}{2}$$ ...
17
votes
1answer
78k views

Solving Triangles (finding missing sides/angles given 3 sides/angles)

What is a general procedure for "solving" a triangle—that is, for finding the unknown side lengths and angle measures given three side lengths and/or angle measures?
14
votes
3answers
550 views

Prove that $\int_0^\pi\frac{\cos x \cos 4x}{(2-\cos x)^2}dx=\frac{\pi}{9} (2160 - 1247\sqrt{3})$

Prove that $$\int_0^\pi\frac{\cos x \cos 4x}{(2-\cos x)^2}dx=\frac{\pi}{9} (2160 - 1247\sqrt{3})$$ I tried to use Weierstrass substitution but the term $\cos 4x$ made horrible algebraic-forms since ...
17
votes
4answers
1k views

Showing $\tan\frac{2\pi}{13}\tan\frac{5\pi}{13}\tan\frac{6\pi}{13}=\sqrt{65+18\sqrt{13}}$

How can one show : $$\tan\frac{2\pi}{13}\tan\frac{5\pi}{13}\tan\frac{6\pi}{13}=\sqrt{65+18\sqrt{13}}?$$
25
votes
8answers
3k views

Reasoning that $ \sin2x=2 \sin x \cos x$

In mathcounts teacher told us to use the formula $ \sin2x=2 \sin x \cos x$. What's the math behind this formula that made it true? Can someone explain?
25
votes
6answers
2k views

If we define $\sin x$ as series, how can we obtain the geometric meaning of $\sin x$?

In Terry Tao's textbook Analysis, he defines $\sin x$ as below: Define rational numbers Define Cauchy sequences of rational numbers, and equivalence of Cauchy sequences Define reals as the ...
16
votes
4answers
718 views

Is there an elementary proof for Euler's product for Sine?

I've been looking at proofs of this equation: $$\displaystyle \frac {\sin \pi x} {\pi x} = \displaystyle \prod_{k \mathop = 1}^\infty \left({1 - \frac{x^2}{k^2} }\right)$$ All the proofs seem to ...
16
votes
4answers
1k views

About the addition formula $f(x+y) = f(x)g(y)+f(y)g(x)$

Consider the functional equation $$f(x+y) = f(x)g(y)+f(y)g(x)$$ valid for all complex $x,y$. The only solutions I know for this equation are $f(x)=0$, $f(x)=Cx$, $f(x)=C\sin(x)$ and $f(x)=C\sinh(x)$. ...