Trigonometric functions (both geometric and circular), relationships between lengths and angles in triangles, and other topics relating to measuring triangles.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

6
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the periodicity of the function $\sin(ax) \cos(bx)$ where $a$ and $b$ are rationals?

So, I have a general question first. What happens to the periodicity when we multiply two periodic trig functions with one another ? The next one is very specific, what is the period of the function ...
2
votes
2answers
186 views

A question by Ramanujan about a relational expression of a triangle

I found the following question in a book without any proof: Question : Suppose that each length of three edges of a triangle $ABC$ are $BC=a, CA=b, AB=c$ respectively. If $$\frac1a=\frac1b+\frac1c, ...
8
votes
11answers
4k views

How do we prove $\cos(\pi/5) - \cos(2\pi/5) = 0.5$ ?.

How do we prove $\cos(\pi/5) - \cos(2\pi/5) = 0.5$ without using a calculator. Related question: how do we prove that $\cos(\pi/5)\cos(2\pi/5) = 0.25$, also without using a calculator
8
votes
7answers
926 views

Limit, solution in unusual way

I have a problem with solution of this limit: $$\lim_{x\to 0}{\frac{\tan{x}-x}{x^2}}$$ Of course, it's a very easy to solve, using (twice) L'Hôpital's rule, but I need to find out, how to do this ...
5
votes
3answers
207 views

minimum value of $\cos(A-B)+\cos(B-C) +\cos(C-A)$ is $-3/2$

How to prove that the minimum value of $\cos(A-B)+\cos(B-C) +\cos(C-A)$ is $-3/2$
5
votes
3answers
2k views

How do I measure distance on a globe?

I have a $3$-D sphere of radius $R$, centered at the origin. $(x_1,y_1,z_1)$ and $(x_2,y_2,z_2)$ are two points on the sphere. The Euclidean distance is easy to calculate, but what if I were to ...
14
votes
3answers
406 views

$ \tan 1^\circ \cdot \tan 2^\circ \cdot \tan 3^\circ \cdots \tan 89^\circ$

How can I find the following product using elementary trigonometry? $$ \tan 1^\circ \cdot \tan 2^\circ \cdot \tan 3^\circ \cdots \tan 89^\circ.$$ I have tried using a substitution, but nothing ...
11
votes
3answers
4k views

Why is it that when proving trig identities, one must work both sides independently?

Suppose that you have to prove the trig identity: $$\frac{\sin\theta - \sin^3\theta}{\cos^2\theta}=\sin\theta$$ I have always been told that I should manipulate the left and right sides of the ...
10
votes
3answers
399 views

Calculating :$((\sqrt{3} + \tan (1^\circ)).((\sqrt{3} +\tan(2^\circ))…((\sqrt{3}+\tan(29^\circ))$

What is the easiest way to calculate : $$(\sqrt{3} + \tan (1^\circ)).((\sqrt{3} +\tan(2^\circ))...((\sqrt{3}+\tan(29^\circ)) $$
7
votes
5answers
511 views

A little integration paradox

The following integral can be obtained using the online Wolfram integrator $$ \int \frac{dx}{1+\cos^2 x} = \frac{\tan^{-1}(\frac{\tan x}{\sqrt{2}})}{\sqrt{2}}$$ Now assume we are performing this ...
5
votes
1answer
935 views

Geometric construction of hyperbolic trigonometric functions

If we have a circle we can geometrically construct the trigonometric functions as shown. The functions all derive from sin and cos. If we say that the circle is a conic section and imagine it on the ...
5
votes
2answers
325 views

Prove $\frac{1}{4-\sec^{2}\frac{2\pi}{7}} + \frac{1}{4-\sec^{2}\frac{4\pi}{7}} + \frac{1}{4-\sec^{2}\frac{6\pi}{7}} = 1.$

How can I prove the fact $$\frac{1}{4-\sec^{2}\frac{2\pi}{7}} + \frac{1}{4-\sec^{2}\frac{4\pi}{7}} + \frac{1}{4-\sec^{2}\frac{6\pi}{7}} = 1.$$ When asked somebody told me to use the ideas of ...
5
votes
5answers
3k views

Solving $ \sin x + \sqrt 3 \cos x = 1 $ - is my solution correct?

I have an equation that I'm trying to solve: $$ \sin x + \sqrt 3 \cos x = 1 $$ After pondering for a while and trying different things out, this chain of steps is what I ended up with: $$ \sin x + ...
4
votes
4answers
1k views

$\lim_{x\to0} \frac{x-\sin x}{x-\tan x}$ without using L'Hopital

$$\lim_{x\to0} \frac{x-\sin x}{x-\tan x}=?$$ I tried using $\lim_{x\to0} \frac{\sin x}{x}=1$. But it doesn't work :/
4
votes
5answers
764 views

How to prove a trigonometric identity

Show that $$ \tan(A)=\frac{\sin2A}{1+\cos 2A} $$ I've tried a few methods, and it stumped my teacher.
0
votes
3answers
149 views

Compute the Integral

Compute the integral. $$\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac{x^4}{1+x^8} \, dx$$ The answer at the back of the book is $$\frac{\pi}{4\sin(\frac{3\pi}{8})}$$
10
votes
4answers
958 views

Is there a more efficient method of trig mastery than rote memorization?

I would like to get alot better at trig than I am. What is the best/most efficient method? Thanks much in advance Joe
8
votes
5answers
506 views

How to see $\sin x + \cos x$

$$\sin x + \cos x = \sqrt{2} \sin(x + \pi/4)$$ Is there an easy way to visualize this identity or to convert the left-hand side to the right-hand side? In general, can $p \sin x + q \cos x$ for ...
6
votes
2answers
807 views

Method to find $\sin (2\pi/7)$

I just thought a way to find $\sin\frac{2π}{7}$. Considering the equation $x^7=1$ $⇒(x-1)(x^6+x^5+x^4+x^3+x^2+x+1)=0$ $⇒(x-1)[(x+\frac1 x)^3+(x+\frac1 x)^2-2(x+\frac1 x)-1]=0$ We can then get the ...
5
votes
1answer
157 views

Finite Series - reciprocals of sines

Find the sum of the finite series $$\sum _{k=1}^{k=89} \frac{1}{\sin(k^{\circ})\sin((k+1)^{\circ})}$$ This problem was asked in a test in my school. The answer seems to be ...
5
votes
1answer
652 views

The only two rational values for cosine and their connection to the Kummer Rings

I am trying to learn about Kummer Rings, and in particular what makes $n=3,4,6$ so special. (That is the Gaussian and Eisenstein integers) The only $\theta\in [0,\frac{\pi}{2}]$ which are rational ...
4
votes
6answers
838 views

How to find the exact value of $ \cos(36^\circ) $?

The problem reads as follows: Noting that $t=\frac{\pi}{5}$ satisfies $3t=\pi-2t$, find the exact value of $$\cos(36^\circ)$$ it says that you may find useful the following identities: ...
4
votes
4answers
695 views

What is the most elegant and simple proof for the law of cosines?

Given 2 sides, and an angle between those two sides, what is the simplest proof you can come up with to find the measure of the 3rd side?
3
votes
4answers
392 views

Find the value of $\textrm{cosec}^2\left(\frac\pi7\right) +\textrm{cosec}^2\left(\frac{2\pi}7\right)+\textrm{cosec}^2\left(\frac{4\pi}7\right)$

What is the value of $$\textrm{cosec}^2\left(\frac\pi7\right) +\textrm{cosec}^2\left(\frac{2\pi}7\right)+\textrm{cosec}^2\left(\frac{4\pi}7\right) \qquad\qquad ? $$ I tried to write ...
6
votes
3answers
281 views

Proof that $\lim_{n\to\infty}{\sin{100n}}$ does not exist

How to prove that $$\lim_{n\to\infty}{\sin{100n}}$$ doesn't exist? Some possible approaches: It would be enough to find two subsequences $n_{k}$ that converge to two different numbers. But ...
5
votes
2answers
339 views

Trig integral $\int{ \cos{x} + \sin{x}\cos{x} dx }$

Assume we have: $ \int{ \cos{x} + \sin{x}\cos{x} dx } $ 2 ways to do it: Use $\sin{x}\cos{x} = \frac{ \sin{2x} }{2} $ Then $ \int{ \cos{x} + \frac{\sin{2x}}{2} dx } $ $ = \sin{x} - \frac{ cos{2x} ...
3
votes
2answers
129 views

Calculating certain functions if only certain buttons on a calculator are permitted

A calculator is broken. The only keys that work are $\sin, \cos, \tan, \cot, \arcsin, \arccos$, and $\arctan$ buttons. The original display is $0$. In this problem, we will prove that ...
3
votes
2answers
202 views

Proving trigonometric equation $\cos(36^\circ) - \cos(72^\circ) = 1/2$ [duplicate]

Please help me to prove this trigonometric equation. $\cos \left( 36^\circ \right)-\cos \left( 72^\circ \right) = \frac{1}{2}$ Thank you.
3
votes
4answers
868 views

Linear combinations of sine and cosine

If you take a linear combination of the cosine and sine function, then the result is again a sinusoid, but with a new amplitude and phase shift. $$a \cos(\theta) + b \sin(\theta) = A \cos(\theta + ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

How can I find the derivative of $y = \sin(\arctan x) + \tan(\arcsin x)$?

My question is, how can I solve the following derivative question? $$y = \sin(\arctan x) + \tan(\arcsin x)$$ Thanks in advance
2
votes
3answers
60 views

meaning of powers on trig functions

I always forget this, when a trig function has an exponent does that mean multiply itself or apply itself to the result recursivly? e.g. does $\sin(x)^2=\sin(x)\sin(x)$ or $=\sin(\sin(x))$? What ...
42
votes
2answers
1k views

Ramanujan log-trigonometric integrals

I discovered the following conjectured identity numerically while studying a family of related integrals. Let's set $$ R^{+}:= \frac{2}{\pi}\int_{0}^{\pi/2}\sqrt[\normalsize{8}]{x^2 + \ln^2\!\cos x} ...
33
votes
2answers
2k views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{\arctan^2x}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\mathrm dx$

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$I=\int_0^1\frac{\arctan^2x}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\mathrm dx$$ It also can be represented as $$I=\int_0^{\pi/4}\frac{\phi^2}{\cos \phi\,\sqrt{\cos ...
50
votes
5answers
3k views

Why does $\tan^{-1}(1)+\tan^{-1}(2)+\tan^{-1}(3)=\pi$?

Playing around on wolframalpha shows $\tan^{-1}(1)+\tan^{-1}(2)+\tan^{-1}(3)=\pi$. I know $\tan^{-1}(1)=\pi/4$, but how could you compute that $\tan^{-1}(2)+\tan^{-1}(3)=\frac{3}{4}\pi$ to get this ...
39
votes
1answer
875 views

Why does this ratio of sums of square roots equal $1+\sqrt2+\sqrt{4+2\sqrt2}=\cot\frac\pi{16}$ for any natural number $n$?

Why is the following function $f(n)$ constant for any natural number $n$? $$f(n)=\frac{\sum_{k=1}^{n^2+2n}\sqrt{\sqrt{2n+2}+{\sqrt{n+1+\sqrt ...
14
votes
2answers
891 views

Proving $2 ( \cos \frac{4\pi}{19} + \cos \frac{6\pi}{19}+\cos \frac{10\pi}{19} )$ is a root of$ \sqrt{ 4+ \sqrt{ 4 + \sqrt{ 4-x}}}=x$

How can one show that the number $2 \left( \cos \frac{4\pi}{19} + \cos \frac{6\pi}{19}+\cos \frac{10\pi}{19} \right)$ is a root of the equation $\sqrt{ 4+ \sqrt{ 4 + \sqrt{ 4-x}}}=x$?
17
votes
2answers
276 views

Trig sum: $\tan ^21^\circ+\tan ^22^\circ+…+\tan^2 89^\circ = ?$

As the title suggests, I'm trying to find the sum $$\tan^21^\circ+\tan^2 2^\circ+...+\tan^2 89^\circ$$ I'm looking for a solution that doesn't involve complex numbers, or any other advanced branch in ...
14
votes
4answers
4k views

Do “imaginary” and “complex” angles exist?

During some experimentation with sines and cosines, its inverses, and complex numbers, I came across these results that I found quite interesting: $ \sin ^ {-1} ( 2 ) \approx 1.57 - 1.32 i $ $ \sin ...
20
votes
8answers
4k views

Rapid approximation of $\tanh(x)$

This is kind of a signal processing/programming/mathematics crossover question. At the moment it seems more math-related to me, but if the moderators feel it belongs elsewhere please feel free to ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

Sine Approximation of Bhaskara

An Indian mathematician, Bhaskara I, gave the following amazing approximation of the sine (I checked the graph and some values, and the approximation is truly impressive.) $$\sin x \approx ...
14
votes
6answers
767 views

Why do we use the Euclidean metric on $\mathbb{R}^2$?

On the train home, I thought I would try to prove $\pi$ is irrational. I needed a definition, so I used: $\pi$ is the area of the unit circle. But what is a circle? A circle is the set of tuples ...
17
votes
4answers
3k views

How does e, or the exponential function, relate to rotation?

$e^{i \pi} = -1$. I get why this works from a sum-of-series perspective and from an integration perspective, as in I can evaluate the integrals and find this result. However, I don't understand it ...
6
votes
9answers
8k views

Good book recommendations on trigonometry

I need to find a good book on trigonometry, I was using trigonometry demystified but I got sad when I read this line: Now that you know how the circular functions are defined, you might wonder how ...
8
votes
3answers
270 views

A trigonometric equation

Some years ago, I came across the following question: Find the value of $\tan5°\tan55°\tan65°\tan75°$. The value is 1 and I generalized the question as follows. $\tan a°\tan b°\tan c°\tan d° ...
8
votes
1answer
3k views

How were Hyperbolic functions derived/discovered?

Trig functions are simple ratios, but what does Cosh, Sinh and Tanh compute? How are they related to euler's number anyway?
6
votes
4answers
9k views

Determine third point of triangle when two points and all sides are known?

Determine third point of triangle (on a 2D plane) when two points and all sides are known? A = (0,0) B = (5,0) C = (?, ?) AB = 5 BC = 4 AC = 3 Can someone ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Infinite series expansion of $\sin (x)$

Are there any other ways to demonstrate that $$\sin(x)=\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^kx^{1+2k}}{(1+2k)!}$$ without using the definition of Taylor series of complex exponentials, and similarly for ...
4
votes
4answers
294 views

Trigo Problem : Find the value of $\sin\frac{2\pi}{7}+\sin\frac{4\pi}{7}+\sin\frac{8\pi}{7}$

Find the value of $\sin\frac{2\pi}{7}+\sin\frac{4\pi}{7}+\sin\frac{8\pi}{7}$ My approach : I used $\sin A +\sin B = 2\sin(A+B)/2\times\cos(A-B)/2 $ $\Rightarrow ...
4
votes
7answers
280 views

Exact value for $\cos 36°$

Good morning! I'm having trouble with this problem... It's just taking me forever and I'm worn out and I'm lost on how to use a double angle identity for $72=2⋅36$ The problem reads as follows An ...
16
votes
7answers
5k views

Exact values of $\cos(2\pi/7)$ and $\sin(2\pi/7)$

What are the exact values of $\cos(2\pi/7)$ and $\sin(2\pi/7)$ and how do I work it out? I know that $\cos(2\pi/7)$ and $\sin(2\pi/7)$ are the real and imaginary parts of $e^{2\pi i/7}$ but I am not ...